Cover1.0. MODULE 1: TERMINOLOGY/HOMEOSTASIS1.1. TERMINOLOGY1.1.2. Body Directions1.1.3. Anatomical Divisions, Subdivisions and Cavities1.1.4. Prefixes1.1.5. Suffixes1.1.6. Abbreviations1.2. HOMEOSTASIS1.2.1. Homeostasis Defined1.2.2. Homeostatic Control Systems1.2.3. Feedback Response Loop2.0. MODULE 2: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY2.1. MATTER2.1.1. Subatomic Particles2.1.2. Electron Configurations2.1.3. Chemical Bonds2.2. WATER 2.2.1. Chemical Characteristics of Water2.2.2. Water and Aqueous Solutions2.3. ACIDS, BASES, PH AND BUFFERS2.3.1. Acids and Bases2.3.2. pH2.3.3 . Buffers3.0. MODULE 3: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY3.1. CARBOHYDRATES3.1.1. Monosaccharides3.1.2. Disaccharides3.1.3. Polysaccharides3.1.4. Oligosaccharides3.2. LIPIDS3.2.1. Triglycerides3.2.2. Phospholipids3.2.3. Steroids3.2.4. Lipoproteins3.2.5. Lipid Profile Values3.3. PROTEINS3.3.1. Amino Acids3.3.2. Peptide Bonds and Polypeptides3.3.3. Protein Structure3.3.4. Classes of Proteins3.3.5. Enzymes4.0. MODULE 4: THE CELL4.1. CELL STRUCTURES4.1.1 . The Cell Nucleus4.1.2 . The Endoplasmic Reticulum4.1.3 . The Golgi Apparatus4.1.4 . The Mitochondrion4.1.5 . Lysosomes, Proteasomes, and Peroxisomes4.1.6 . The Cytoskeleton5.0. MODULE 5: CELL MEMBRANES-STRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT5.1. STRUCTURE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE5.1.1. Fluid Mosaic Model of the Membrane5.1.2 . Membrane Phospholipids5.1.3. Membrane Proteins5.1.4. Carbohydrates5.2. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT5.2.1. Simple Diffusion5.2.2. Facilitated Diffusion5.2.3. Active Transport5.2.4. Osmosis5.3. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY5.3.1. Ions and Cell Membranes5.3.2. Membrane Potentials5.3.3. Graded Potentials5.3.4. Action Potentials5.3.5. Refractory Periods5.3.6. Propagation of an Action Potential6.0. MODULE 6: NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION6.1. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM6.1.1. Neuron Structure and Classification6.1.2. Glial Cells of the CNS6.1.3. Glial Cells of the PNS6.2. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NEURON6.2.1. The Synapse6.2.2. Summation7.0. MODULE 7: SKELETAL MUSCLE7.1. FUNCTIONS AND PROPERTIES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE7.2. SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGANIZATION7.2.1. Gross and Microscopic Structure7.3. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING, SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY, CONTRACTURES AND CRAMPS7.3.1. Neuromuscular Junction, Excitation-Contraction Coupling, and Sliding Filament Theory7.3.2. Muscle Contractures and Cramps7.4. WHOLE MUSCLE CONTRACTION7.4.1. Motor Units7.4.2. Physiology of a Muscle Twitch7.4.3. Types of Muscle Contraction7.4.4. Factors That Influence the Force of Muscle Contraction7.4.5. Energy Source for Muscle Contraction7.4.6. Fatigue7.4.7. Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types7.4.8. A Little Muscle Pharmacology8.0. MODULE 8: METABOLISM8.1. ENERGTY CYCLE, ATP and ELECTRON CARRIERS 8.1.1. ATP8.1.2. Electron Carriers (NAD and FAD)8.2. GLYCOLYSIS8.3. CITRIC ACID CYCLE8.4. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN8.5. LIPID AND PROTEIN METABOLISM8.5.1. Lipid Metabolism8.5.2. Protein Metabolism9.0. MODULE 9: CONTROL OF BODY MOVEMENT9.1. VOLUNTARY AND REFLEXIVE CONTROL OF MUSCLES9.1.1. Voluntary Control of Muscles9.1.2. Reflexes10.0. MODULE 10: THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM10.1. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM10.1.1. Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System10.1.2. Structural Organization and Anatomy of the ANS10.1.3. The SNS and the PNS10.1.4. The Enteric Nervous System10.2. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ANS10.2.1. Neurotransmitters of the ANS10.2.2. Receptors of the ANS10.3. ACTIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM10.3.1. A Table of Actions for the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions 10.3.2. Various Drugs Used to Modify the Actions of the ANS11.0. MODULE 11: THE BRAIN11.1. BRAIN OVERVIEW AND CEREBRUM11.1.1. Cerebral Cortex11.2. THE DIENCEPHALON,BRAINSTEM AND CEREBELLUM11.2.1. The Thalamus11.2.2. The Hypothalamus11.2.3. The Epithalamus11.2.4. Brainstem11.2.5. Cerebellum11.3. THE LIMBIC SYSTEM, BASAL NUCLEI AND RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM11.3.1. The Limbic System11.3.2. The Basal Nuclei11.3.3. The Reticular Activating System11.4. HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS: THE EEG, SLEEP AND LEARNING11.4.1. Electroencephalogram11.4.2. Sleep11.4.3. Memory and Learning11.5. THE MENINGES, CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID AND CRANIAL NERVES11.5.1. The Meninges11.5.2. Cerebrospinal Fluid11.5.3. Traumatic Brain Injury and Cranial Bleeds11.5.4. Cranial Nerves12.0. MODULE 12: SPECIAL SENSES12.1. THE SENSE OF TASTE AND SMELL12.1.1. Taste12.1.2. The Sense of Smell12.2. VISION: STRUCTURE OF THE EYE12.2.1. Anatomy of the Eye12.2.2. Focusing Light on the Retina12.3. CONVERTING LIGHT TO ACTION POTENTIALS 12.3.1. The Retina12.3.2. Phototransduction12.4. THE INNER EAR: SENSE OF HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM12.4.1. The Nature of Sound12.4.2. The Hearing Apparatus12.4.3. Sound Vibrations to Action Potentials12.4.4. The Sense of Balance and Equilibrium