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ContentMODULE 1: TERMINOLOGY/HOMEOSTASIS TERMINOLOGY Body Directions Anatomical Divisions, Subdivisions and Cavities Prefixes Suffixes Abbreviations HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis Defined Homeostatic Control Systems Feedback Response Loop MODULE 2: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY MATTER Subatomic Particles Electron Configurations Chemical Bonds WATER Chemical Characteristics of Water Water and Aqueous Solutions ACIDS, BASES, PH AND BUFFERS Acids and Bases pH Buffers MODULE 3: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Oligosaccharides LIPIDS Triglycerides Phospholipids Steroids Lipoproteins Lipid Profile Values PROTEINS Amino Acids Peptide Bonds and Polypeptides Protein Structure Classes of Proteins Enzymes MODULE 4: THE CELL CELL STRUCTURES The Cell Nucleus The Endoplasmic Reticulum The Golgi Apparatus The Mitochondrion Lysosomes, Proteasomes, and Peroxisomes The Cytoskeleton MODULE 5: CELL MEMBRANES-STRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT STRUCTURE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE Fluid Mosaic Model of the Membrane Membrane Phospholipids Membrane Proteins Carbohydrates MEMBRANE TRANSPORT Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport Osmosis INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Ions and Cell Membranes Membrane Potentials Graded Potentials Action Potentials Refractory Periods Propagation of an Action Potential MODULE 6: NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neuron Structure and Classification Glial Cells of the CNS Glial Cells of the PNS PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NEURON The Synapse Summation MODULE 7: SKELETAL MUSCLE FUNCTIONS AND PROPERTIES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGANIZATION Gross and Microscopic Structure NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING, SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY, CONTRACTURES AND CRAMPS Neuromuscular Junction, Excitation-Contraction Coupling, and Sliding Filament Theory Muscle Contractures and Cramps WHOLE MUSCLE CONTRACTION Motor Units Physiology of a Muscle Twitch Types of Muscle Contraction Factors That Influence the Force of Muscle Contraction Energy Source for Muscle Contraction Fatigue Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types A Little Muscle Pharmacology MODULE 8: METABOLISM ENERGTY CYCLE, ATP and ELECTRON CARRIERS ATP Electron Carriers (NAD and FAD) GLYCOLYSIS CITRIC ACID CYCLE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN LIPID AND PROTEIN METABOLISM Lipid Metabolism Protein Metabolism MODULE 9: CONTROL OF BODY MOVEMENT VOLUNTARY AND REFLEXIVE CONTROL OF MUSCLES Voluntary Control of Muscles Reflexes MODULE 10: THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System Structural Organization and Anatomy of the ANS The SNS and the PNS The Enteric Nervous System PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ANS Neurotransmitters of the ANS Receptors of the ANS ACTIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM A Table of Actions for the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions Various Drugs Used to Modify the Actions of the ANS MODULE 11: THE BRAIN BRAIN OVERVIEW AND CEREBRUM Cerebral Cortex THE DIENCEPHALON,BRAINSTEM AND CEREBELLUM The Thalamus The Hypothalamus The Epithalamus Brainstem Cerebellum THE LIMBIC SYSTEM, BASAL NUCLEI AND RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM The Limbic System The Basal Nuclei The Reticular Activating System HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS: THE EEG, SLEEP AND LEARNING Electroencephalogram Sleep Memory and Learning THE MENINGES, CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID AND CRANIAL NERVES The Meninges Cerebrospinal Fluid Traumatic Brain Injury and Cranial Bleeds Cranial Nerves MODULE 12: SPECIAL SENSES THE SENSE OF TASTE AND SMELL Taste The Sense of Smell VISION: STRUCTURE OF THE EYE Anatomy of the Eye Focusing Light on the Retina CONVERTING LIGHT TO ACTION POTENTIALS The Retina Phototransduction THE INNER EAR: SENSE OF HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM The Nature of Sound The Hearing Apparatus Sound Vibrations to Action Potentials The Sense of Balance and Equilibrium
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Another key group of nuclei found in the cerebrum are basal nuclei (also referred to as the basal ganglia). Key nuclei of this group include the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the globus pallidus. The basal nuclei also receive input from the substantia nigra of the midbrain. The main function of the basal nuclei is in regulating motor control. Although the precise details are not fully understood, it seems to play a key role in preventing incorrect and/or inappropriate movements. It seems to be key in regulating what are referred to as stereotyped movements such as swinging the arms when walking. Additionally, it is thought to play a key role in initiating, stopping and monitoring the intensity of voluntary motor movements. Output from this system does not go to the muscles themselves, rather output is sent to the motor centers in the frontal cortex where adjustments and corrections can be made to the outgoing signals. Damage to the basal nuclei can result in conditions that produce excessive movement (Huntington's disease) or too little movement (Parkinson's disease).
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