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ContentMODULE 1: TERMINOLOGY/HOMEOSTASIS TERMINOLOGY Body Directions Anatomical Divisions, Subdivisions and Cavities Prefixes Suffixes Abbreviations HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis Defined Homeostatic Control Systems Feedback Response Loop MODULE 2: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY MATTER Subatomic Particles Electron Configurations Chemical Bonds WATER Chemical Characteristics of Water Water and Aqueous Solutions ACIDS, BASES, PH AND BUFFERS Acids and Bases pH Buffers MODULE 3: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Oligosaccharides LIPIDS Triglycerides Phospholipids Steroids Lipoproteins Lipid Profile Values PROTEINS Amino Acids Peptide Bonds and Polypeptides Protein Structure Classes of Proteins Enzymes MODULE 4: THE CELL CELL STRUCTURES The Cell Nucleus The Endoplasmic Reticulum The Golgi Apparatus The Mitochondrion Lysosomes, Proteasomes, and Peroxisomes The Cytoskeleton MODULE 5: CELL MEMBRANES-STRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT STRUCTURE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE Fluid Mosaic Model of the Membrane Membrane Phospholipids Membrane Proteins Carbohydrates MEMBRANE TRANSPORT Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport Osmosis INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Ions and Cell Membranes Membrane Potentials Graded Potentials Action Potentials Refractory Periods Propagation of an Action Potential MODULE 6: NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neuron Structure and Classification Glial Cells of the CNS Glial Cells of the PNS PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NEURON The Synapse Summation MODULE 7: SKELETAL MUSCLE FUNCTIONS AND PROPERTIES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGANIZATION Gross and Microscopic Structure NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING, SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY, CONTRACTURES AND CRAMPS Neuromuscular Junction, Excitation-Contraction Coupling, and Sliding Filament Theory Muscle Contractures and Cramps WHOLE MUSCLE CONTRACTION Motor Units Physiology of a Muscle Twitch Types of Muscle Contraction Factors That Influence the Force of Muscle Contraction Energy Source for Muscle Contraction Fatigue Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types A Little Muscle Pharmacology MODULE 8: METABOLISM ENERGTY CYCLE, ATP and ELECTRON CARRIERS ATP Electron Carriers (NAD and FAD) GLYCOLYSIS CITRIC ACID CYCLE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN LIPID AND PROTEIN METABOLISM Lipid Metabolism Protein Metabolism MODULE 9: CONTROL OF BODY MOVEMENT VOLUNTARY AND REFLEXIVE CONTROL OF MUSCLES Voluntary Control of Muscles Reflexes MODULE 10: THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System Structural Organization and Anatomy of the ANS The SNS and the PNS The Enteric Nervous System PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ANS Neurotransmitters of the ANS Receptors of the ANS ACTIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM A Table of Actions for the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions Various Drugs Used to Modify the Actions of the ANS MODULE 11: THE BRAIN BRAIN OVERVIEW AND CEREBRUM Cerebral Cortex THE DIENCEPHALON,BRAINSTEM AND CEREBELLUM The Thalamus The Hypothalamus The Epithalamus Brainstem Cerebellum THE LIMBIC SYSTEM, BASAL NUCLEI AND RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM The Limbic System The Basal Nuclei The Reticular Activating System HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS: THE EEG, SLEEP AND LEARNING Electroencephalogram Sleep Memory and Learning THE MENINGES, CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID AND CRANIAL NERVES The Meninges Cerebrospinal Fluid Traumatic Brain Injury and Cranial Bleeds Cranial Nerves MODULE 12: SPECIAL SENSES THE SENSE OF TASTE AND SMELL Taste The Sense of Smell VISION: STRUCTURE OF THE EYE Anatomy of the Eye Focusing Light on the Retina CONVERTING LIGHT TO ACTION POTENTIALS The Retina Phototransduction THE INNER EAR: SENSE OF HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM The Nature of Sound The Hearing Apparatus Sound Vibrations to Action Potentials The Sense of Balance and Equilibrium
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The reticular activating system (RAS) is a diffuse network of neurons in the brain that interact with structures such as the hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. It includes the reticular formation that originates in the brain stem near the pons and radiates into the cerebrum. Functionally this network of neurons is called the name reticular activating system. The primary function of this system is to maintain the brain in a state of alertness or arousal. It is also involved in regulating our sleep wake cycles. Damage to this system results in the inability to remain awake and alert. Narcolepsy, for example, is thought to be due to malfunctioning of the RAS. If the system is suddenly shut down, like from a blow to the head, the victim will lose consciousness. Caffeine has the effect of exciting the reticular formation fibers so that one "feels" more awake or as if they have more energy. Likewise bright light, cold water on the face and noxious chemicals (smelling salts) stimulate the RAS while dim lights, soothing music, warmth and general anesthetics suppress this system.
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