BIO 265 Anatomy and Physiology II

1.0. MODULE 1: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM1.1. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE HEART1.1.1. Chambers and Circulation1.1.2. The Layers of the Heart Wall1.1.3. Cardiac Muscle Histology and Organization1.2. CARDIAC CELL ACTION POTENTIALS1.2.1. Action Potentials in Cardiac Contractile Muscle Cells1.2.2. Action Potentials in Cardiac Autorhythmic Cells1.3. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF HEART MUSCLE1.3.1. Heart Conduction System1.3.2. Cardiac Excitation Coupling1.3.3. Electrocardiogram (EKG)1.4. THE CARDIAC CYCLE1.4.1. Cardiac Cycle1.4.2. Cardiac Measurements1.5. REGULATION OF CARDIAC FUNCTION1.5.1. Intrinsic Regulation1.5.2. Extrinsic Regulation1.5.3. Mean Arterial Pressure1.5.4. Baroreceptor and Chemoreceptor Reflexes2.0. MODULE 2: BLOOD2.1. INTRODUCTION TO BLOOD, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION AND BREAKDOWN2.1.1. Functions of Blood2.1.2. Composition of Blood2.1.3. Hematopoiesis2.1.4. Red Blood Cells2.1.5. Hemoglobin2.1.6. Erythropoiesis2.1.7. Breaking Down Red Blood Cells2.1.8. White Blood Cells and Platelets2.2. HEMOSTASIS 2.2.1. Vascular Spasm2.2.2. Platelet Plug2.2.3. Clotting (Coagulation) Cascade2.2.4. Clot Retraction and Fibrinolysis2.2.5. Blood Clot Regulation2.3. BLOOD TYPING2.3.1. Blood Antigens and Antibodies2.3.2. ABO Blood Group System2.3.3. Rh Blood Group System2.3.4. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn2.4. BLOOD VESSEL STRUCTURE AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS 2.4.1. Arteries and Veins2.4.2. Portal System2.4.3. Capillaries2.4.4. Atherosclerosis2.5. CAPILLARY EXCHANGE2.5.1. Edema2.6. BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION AND SHOCK2.6.1. Blood Pressure Explained2.6.2. Short-Term Regulation2.6.3. 2.6.3 - Long-Term Regulation2.6.4. Shock3.0. MODULE 3: IMMUNE SYSTEM3.1. OVERVIEW OF THE LYMPHATIC AND NON-SPECIFIC INNATE RESPONSE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM3.1.1. Structure and Function of the Lymphatic System3.1.2. Physical Barriers: First Wall of Defense3.1.3. Internal Non-Specific Defense Mechanisms3.2. SPECIFIC ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE, ANTIBODIES, IMMUNITY & VACCINES3.2.1. Specific Defenses of the Immune Response3.2.2. Antibodies3.2.3. Immunological Memory3.2.4. Vaccines, Autoimmunity and Allergies4.0. MODULE 4: THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM4.1. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM4.1.1. Functions of the Integumentary System4.1.2. Composition of the Skin4.1.3. Skin Color4.1.4. Skin Cancer4.2. HAIR 4.2.1. Types of Hair4.2.2. Structure of Hair4.2.3. Hair Growth4.2.4. Hair Loss5.0. MODULE 5: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM5.1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND VENTILATION5.1.1. Respiratory System Function5.1.2. Respiratory Structure 5.1.3. Respiratory Membrane5.1.4. Alveoli and Surfactant5.2. RESPIRATORY PRESSURES5.2.1. Ventilation: Inspiration and Expiration5.2.2. Pressure Differences in the Thoracic Cavity5.2.3. Pneumothorax and Pleuritis5.2.4. Respiratory Volumes and Capacity5.3. GAS EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT5.3.1. Rate of Diffusion5.3.2. Gas Laws Important in Gas Exchange5.3.3. Partial Pressure Gradients5.3.4. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood5.4. RESPIRATORY CONTROL5.4.1. Respiratory Control by the Medulla Oblongata5.4.2. Chemicals that Regulate Ventilation5.4.3. COPD and Asthma6.0. MODULE 6: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM6.1. FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM6.1.1. Hyaline Cartilage6.1.2. Bone Characteristics6.1.3. Bone Classification and Anatomy6.1.4. Bone Cells6.1.5. Formation of Woven and Lamellar Bone6.1.6. Bone and Blood Calcium Levels6.2. FORMATION, GROWTH & REPAIR OF BONE6.2.1. Fetal Development of Bone: Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification6.2.2. Bone Growth in Children and Repair of Bones6.2.3. Factors that Influence Bone Growth6.2.4. Bone Repair7.0. MODULE 7: URINARY SYSTEM7.1. THE KIDNEY: FUNCTION, ANATOMY, THE NEPHRON AND GLOMERULUS7.1.1. Urinary System Function7.1.2. Functional Anatomy of the Urinary System7.1.3. The Nephron: Functional Unit of the Kidney7.1.4. The Renal Corpuscle: Bowman’s Capsule and the Glomerulus7.2. FILTRATION, REABSORPTION, AND SECRETION7.2.1. Filtration7.2.2. Tubular Reabsorption 7.2.3. Secretion7.2.4. Excretion 7.3. PHYSIOLOGY OF URINE PRODUCTION7.3.1. Renal Clearance7.3.2. Urine Concentration and Dilution7.3.3. Hormonal Regulation of Urine Production7.4. ACID/BASE BALANCE7.4.1. Buffers7.4.2. Respiratory System7.4.3. Kidneys7.4.4. Acid Base Disturbances8.0. MODULE 8: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM8.1. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM8.1.1. Layers of Alimentary Canal of the Digestive System8.1.2. Enteric Nervous System8.1.3. Organs of the Digestive System8.2. DIGESTION8.2.1. Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption8.2.2. Protein Digestion and Absorption8.2.3. Lipid Digestion8.3. REGULATION OF DIGESTIVE SECRETIONS9.0. MODULE 9: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM9.1. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM AND HORMONES OF THE BODY9.1.1. Overview of the Endocrine System9.1.2. Hormone Receptors9.1.3. Hormones of the Body9.1.4. Other Hormones: Melatonin and Pheromones9.2. THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND9.2.1. Posterior Pituitary9.2.2. Anterior Pituitary9.3. THYROID AND ADRENAL GLANDS 9.3.1. Thyroid Hormone Synthesis9.3.2. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion9.3.3. Thyroid Hormone Actions9.3.4. Thyroid Disorders9.3.5. Adrenal Gland9.4. PANCREAS9.4.1. Insulin9.4.2. Regulation of Secretion of Insulin9.4.3. Glucagon9.4.4. Diabetes Mellitus10.0. MODULE 10: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM10.1. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ANATOMY AND GERM CELLS10.1.1. Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System10.1.2. Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System10.1.3. Mitosis and Meiosis10.2. THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM10.2.1. Male Reproductive Endocrine Axis10.2.2. Spermatogenesis10.2.3. Physiology of the Male Erection and Ejaculation10.3. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM10.3.1. Oogenesis10.3.2. Folliculogenesis10.3.3. Ovulation and Fertilization10.3.4. The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine 10.3.5. Ovarian Cycle10.3.6. Uterine Cycle10.3.7. Getting Pregnant

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