1. Describe the term nociception and the four phases of nociception.
  2. Discuss how peripheral sensitization leads to hyperalgesia.
  3. Describe how capsaicin works on its receptor.
  4. Explain the four different types of afferent axon fibers and what sense they transmit.
  5. Describe the DCML and ALS tracts for pain transmission.
  6. Explain how descending pathways and opioids work to regulate pain.
  7. Explain how pain may be regulated through the gate control theory.
  8. Discuss the different types of pain and how they are categorized.
  9. Describe how common pain medication works to modulate pain.
  10. Compare and contrast the different types of headaches (migraine, tension, cluster, and chronic).
  11. Describe some common medications to treat headaches.
  12. Describe benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer and how they differ.
  13. Discuss common disorders of the uterus (PID, endometriosis, adenomyosis, etc.)
  14. Describe the normal physiology of the menstrual, ovarian, and follicular cycles.
  15. Discuss the pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.
  16. Recall the signs, symptoms, and risk factors for breast cancer.


  • Adenomyosis
  • Allodynia
  • ALS pathway
  • Androgen
  • Aromatase
  • Aura
  • BPH
  • Bradykinin
  • BRCA 1 and 2
  • Capsaicin
  • CGRP
  • Corpus albicans
  • Corpus luteum
  • DCML pathway
  • DHT

  • DNIC
  • Enkephalin and endorphin
  • Endometriosis
  • Estrogen
  • Follicular and luteal phases
  • Gate control theory of pain
  • GnRH, LH, FSH
  • Granulosa cell
  • Hirsutism
  • Hyperalgesia
  • Hyperplasia
  • Hypertrophy

  • Hysterectomy
  • Leiomyoma
  • LH surge
  • Menses
  • Nociception
  • Ovulatory age
  • Ovulation
  • PID
  • Proliferative and secretory phases
  • Progesterone
  • PSA
  • SERM
  • Substance P
  • Theca cell

Pain and Headaches Introduction to Pain and Pain AssessmentsPain TransductionPain TransmissionPain PerceptionPain ModulationThe Gate-Control Theory of PainTypes of PainPain MedicationHeadachesReproductive System DisordersBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate CancerDisorders of the UterusReview of the Physiology of the Menstrual CycleDisorders of the OvaryBreast Structures and Breast Cancer

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