Table of Actions for the SNS and PNS and Some Common Drugs

Effector Organ Sympathetic Effects (receptor) Parasympathetic Effects (receptor)
Eye (iris) Contraction of dilator pupillae muscles - mydriasis(α­1) Contraction of sphincter pupillae muscles – miosis(M)
Eye (ciliary muscle) Relaxation(β2) for distant vision Contraction(M) for accommodation of lens (near vision) and increase aqueous humor outflow into canal of Schlemm
Eye (ciliary body epithelium) Increased aqueous humor production(β1) ---
Heart Increased heart rate, increased force of contraction and increased conduction rate (β1) Decreased heart and conduction rate(M), decreased atrial contractility(M)
Arterioles(skin, abdominal viscera, kidney) Strong vasoconstriction(α1) ---
Arterioles(skeletal muscle) Weak vasoconstriction(α1­)
Vasodilation (β2)
Vessels(heart) Vasoconstriction(α1), Vasodilation(β2) ---
Lungs Dilates Bronchioles(β2) Constricts bronchioles(M)
Uterus, pregnant Constriction(α1), relaxation(β2) Contraction(M)
Gastrointestinal tract wall Decreased tone(α12,β2) Increased tone(M)
Gastrointestinal tract sphincter Contraction(α1) Relaxation(M)
Gatrointestinal tract secretion --- Increased(M)
Kidney Increased renin release(β1) ---
Bladder wall (detrusor muscle) Relaxation(β2) Contraction(M)
Internal urinary sphincter Contraction(α1) Relaxation(M)
Pancreas Decreased insulin secretion(α2), decreased exocrine secretion(α) Increased insulin secretion(M), increased exocrine secretion(M)
Fat cells Lipolysis(β3) ---
Liver Glycogenolysis (α12), Gluconeogenesis(α12) Glucose uptake (M3?)
Piloerector muscles of skin Contraction(α1) ---
Salivary gland Constriction of vessels & small production of thick saliva(α1) Dilation of vessels & large production of thin saliva(M)
Sweat Gland Generalized sweating (M); Localized sweating (stress) palms & soles of feet (α1) ---
Adrenal medullae Increased secretion of EPI or NE ---
Drug Name Receptor and antagonist/agonist Indication(use)
Phenylephrine α1 agonist Mydriatic
Atropine Muscarinic antagonist Mydriatic/emergency medicine to increase heart rate
Pilocarpine Muscarinic agonist Glaucoma
Betaxolol Beta antagonist Glaucoma
Prazosin α1 antagonist High blood pressure, Raynaud's disease
Terazosin α1 antagonist High blood pressure, hyperhidrosis
Atenolol bantagonist High blood pressure
Ipratropium (Atrovent) Muscarinic antagonist Asthma/COPD
Albuterol βagonist Asthma/COPD
Bethanechol Muscarinic agonist Postoperative ileus

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