CoverModule 1.0. Homeostasis, Membranes, Electrophysiology and ANS (Essay Questions)1.1. Homeostasis1.1.1. Homeostasis Defined1.1.2. Homeostatic Control Systems1.1.3. Feedback Response Loop1.2. Cell Transport; Water & Solutes1.2.1. Fluid Compartments1.2.2. Osmosis1.2.3. Diffusion of Solutes1.2.4. Active Transport1.2.5. Bulk Transport1.3. Electrophysiology1.3.1. Ions and Cell Membranes1.3.2. Membrane Potentials1.3.3. Graded Potential1.3.4. Action Potentials1.3.5. Refractory Periods1.3.6. Propagation of an Action Potential1.4. THE SYNAPSE1.5. THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM1.5.1. Organization of the Nervous System1.5.2. Structural Organization of the ANS1.5.3. The SNS and the PNS1.5.4. The Enteric Nervous System1.5.5. Physiology of the ANS1.5.6. Neurotransmitters of the ANS1.5.7. Receptors of the ANS1.5.8. Actions of the Autonomic Nervous System1.5.9. Table of Actions for the SNS and PNS and Some Common DrugsModule 2.0. Skeletal Muscle and Special Senses2.1. Structural Organization of Skeletal Muscle2.2.1. Neuromuscular Junction, Excitation-Contraction Coupling2.2.2. Muscle Contractures and Cramps2.3. Whole Muscle Contraction, Fiber Type, Fatigue and Muscle Pharmacology2.3.1. Motor Units2.3.2. Factors that Influence the Force of Contraction2.3.3. Energy Source for Muscle Contraction2.3.4. Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types2.3.5. Fatigue2.3.6. Muscle Pharmacology2.4. Smooth Muscle2.4.1. Smooth Muscle Contraction2.5. Control of Body Movement2.5.1. Voluntary Control of Muscle2.5.2. Reflexes2.6. Taste and Smell2.6.1. Taste2.6.2. The Sense of Smell2.7. Vision2.7.1. Structure of the Eye2.7.2. Focusing Light on the Retina2.7.3. Converting Light to Action Potentials2.7.4. The Retina2.7.5. Phototransduction2.7.6. Receptive Fields2.8. Hearing and Equilibrium2.8.1. The Nature of Sound2.8.2. The Hearing Apparatus2.8.3. Sound Vibrations to Action Potentials2.8.4. The Sense of Balance and EquilibriumModule 3.0. Cardiovascular System3.1. Structure of the Heart3.1.1. Chambers and Circulation3.2. Cardiac Cell Action Potentials3.2.1. Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle Cells3.2.2. Action Potentials in Cardiac Autorhythmic cells3.2.3. Cellular Mechanisms of Inotropy and Chronotropy3.3. Electrophysiology of Heart Muscle3.3.1. Heart Conduction System3.3.2. Electrocardiogram (ECG)3.3.3. Abnormal ECG - Current of Injury3.4. The Cardiac Cycle3.4.1. Cardiac cycle3.4.2. Cardiac Measurements and Pressure Volume Loops3.5. Blood vessels and Blood Pressure3.5.1. Arteries and Veins3.5.2. Capillaries3.5.3. Blood Pressure Regulation and Shock3.5.4. Capillary Exchange3.5.5. Myogenic and Paracrine Regulation of Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation3.6. Blood3.6.1. Composition of Blood3.6.2. Hematopoeisis3.6.3. Breaking Down Red Blood Cells3.6.4. HemostasisModule 4.0. Urinary and Respiratory Systems4.1. Function and Structure of the Kidney4.1.1. Urinary System Function4.1.2. Functional Anatomy of the Urinary System4.1.3. The Nephron: Functional Unit of the Kidney4.1.4. The Renal Corpuscle: Bowman's Capsule4.2. Physiology of Urine Production4.2.1. Filtration4.2.2. Renal Clearance4.2.3. Tubular Reabsorption4.2.4. Urine Concentration and Dilution4.2.5. Hormonal Regulation of Urine Production4.3. Acid/Base Balance4.3.1. Buffers4.3.2. Acid/Base Disturbances4.4. The Respiratory System4.4.1. Respiratory System Structure and Function4.4.2. Respiratory Membrane4.4.3. Respiratory pressures and Inspriation/Expiration4.4.4. Alveoli and Surfactant4.4.5. Pneumothorax4.5. Gas Exchange and Transport4.5.1. Gas Laws4.5.2. Partial Pressure Gradients in the Lung4.5.3. Alveolar Gas Equation4.5.4. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood4.5.5. Alveolar Ventilation4.5.6. Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio4.6. Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema4.6.1. Respiratory Control by the Medulla Oblongata4.6.2. Chemicals that Regulate VentilationModule 5.0. Digestive, Endocrine and Reproductive Systems5.1. Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System5.1.1. Layers of the Digestive Tract5.1.2. Enteric Nervous System5.1.3. Organs of the Digestive System5.2. Digestion5.2.1. Carbohydrates5.2.2. Proteins5.2.3. Lipids5.2.4. Lipoproteins5.3. Regulation of Digestive Secretions5.4. Endocrine System5.4.1. Overview of the Endocrine System5.4.2. Hormone Receptors5.4.3. Hormones of the Body5.4.4. Other Hormones: Melatonin and Pheromones5.5. The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland5.5.1. Structure and Function of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland5.5.2. The Posterior Pituitary5.5.3. The Anterior Pituitary5.5.4. Growth Hormone5.5.5. Prolactin5.5.6. Thyroid Hormones5.5.7. Adrenal Hormones5.6. Pancreas5.6.1. Insulin and Glucagon5.6.2. Diabetes Mellitus5.7. Reproductive System Anatomy5.7.1. Female Reproductive Anatomy5.7.2. Male Reproductive Anatomy5.7.3. Sexual Development at Puberty5.7.4. Male Reproductive Endocrine Axis5.7.5. Spermatogenesis5.7.6. Female Reproductive System: Oogenesis5.7.7. Ovulation and Fertilization5.7.8. The Ovarian Cycle5.7.9. The Uterine Cycle5.7.10. PregnancyAppendix A. GenderAppendix B. The Placebo EffectB.2.1. The Placebo EffectB.2.2. Examples of the Placebo EffectB.2.3. How do Placebos Work?B.2.4. Are Placebos Ethical?B.2.5. How do we validate actual effectiveness of placebosB.2.6. Tips for evaluating scientific evidenceB.2.7. What about Faith Healings
3.2.1

Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle Cells

Action potentials in cardiac muscle are significantly different from those in axons and skeletal muscle. In addition, action potentials differ among the different cell types. In cardiac muscle, there are two major cell types; contractile cells and pacemaker cells. Cardiac action potentials are regulated by four major time-dependent currents:

  1. Na+ current (INa). Na+ currents, similar to other systems, are responsible for depolarizing phases in the contractile cells.
  2. Ca2+ current (ICa). Ca2+  currents are responsible for depolarizing phases in pacemaker cells. The Ca2+  current is also essential for triggering contraction in contractile muscle cell types.
  3. K+ current (IK). K+ current is responsible for RMP and repolarization of all cardiac muscle cell types.
  4. Pacemaker currents (If). Pacemaker currents are responsible for spontaneous depolarizations of pacemaker cells.

We will explain each current as it pertains to the action potential phases of both cardiac cell types. Let’s walk through the phases of contractile cardiac muscle action potentials first. The figure labels the unique currents observed at each phase of the action potential.

image090.png
Action Potential of Cardiac Myocytes or Cardiac Muscle Cells.
 Drawn by BYU-Idaho JS Fall 2013

Phase 4: Resting membrane potential (RMP). Note that unlike the -70 to -80 mV RMP we are familiar with in axons and skeletal muscle, in cardiac muscle, the RMP is around -90 mV. Cardiac cells are extremely permeable to K+ making the resting RMP of contractile cardiac cells very close to the NERNST for K+. In addition, there are several types of K+ channels found in cardiac muscle. During phase 4 the K+ current through the channel is designated as Ik1.

Phase 0: The depolarization phase. The upstroke characterizing this phase is due to the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels and the influx of Na+ referred to as INa. These are the same channels found in axons and skeletal muscle and, hence, have both activation and inactivation gates and therefore refractory periods. Note that when the membrane depolarizes the K+ channels mentioned in phase 4 close, removing the contribution of the IK1 current.

Phase 1: Rapid repolarization. At the end of the depolarization phase the inactivation gates on the Na+ close, stopping the influx of Na+. At the same time, a small number of K+ and Cl- channels open and the membrane begins to repolarize. These channels are called transient outward K+ channels (Ito1) and calcium activated Cl- channel (Ito2). This current is a repolarizing current and the steepness of the repolarization is determined by the density of channels within the membrane. Thus, contractile cells in different regions of the heart show slightly different tracings at this phase due to different densities.

Phase 2: Plateau. This is the phase that distinguishes the cardiac muscle action potential from other excitable tissues and is the result of the opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Ca2+  channels activate and inactivate much slower than Na+ channels so they contribute current (ICA) only after Na+ channels respond. With the opening of these channels, Ca2+ enters the cell. Two types of Ca2+  channels exist, L-type and T-type channels, so designated based on their inactivation rates. L-type (long lasting) inactivate slower than the T-type (transient) counterparts. Additional K+ channels also open at about the same time called delayed K+ channels. In contrast to Ca2+  channels, the two subtypes of K+ channels are designated by their rates of activation. These channels are slow delayed (IKs) and more rapidly delayed (IKr). There is even an “ultra rapid” delayed type called IKur. During the plateau, the influx of Ca2+ essentially negates the effect of the efflux of K+. Because of the movement of these two ions, K+ out and Ca2+ in, the membrane potential remains fairly constant and does not repolarize rapidly. In addition to prolonging the action potential, the Ca2+ that is entering the cell plays a critical role in triggering muscle contraction (more on this later).

Phase 3: Repolarization. During the plateau phase more and more K+ channels open and toward the end of the plateau phase the K+ efflux definitely becomes greater than the Ca2+ influx and the membrane begins to repolarize (mainly due to the IKr and then IKs currents). As the membrane becomes more negative, the Ca2+ channels close and some IK1 channels open. The membrane quickly returns to RMP. As RMP is reached, the “delayed” K+ channels are all closed. IK1 however, becomes maximally open returns the membrane to RMP around 90 mV. This is a very negative RMP caused by all the extra permeability to K+. This is the reason that this action potential has no hyperpolarization phase like action potentials we have seen before.  

The prolonged nature of the action potential in cardiac muscle has at least 2 important outcomes. First, it prevents the membrane from being restimulated until the muscle has had time to contract and then relax. The absolute refractory period for cardiac muscle cells lasts until the membrane repolarizes, preventing the muscle from being restimulated until it has time to totally relax. Recall that in skeletal muscle, if the frequency of action potentials is high enough the muscle will enter a state of tetany in which the muscle remains continually contracted. If this happened in the heart, blood flow would stop, since refilling of the chambers requires that the heart to relax. Second, contraction of cardiac muscle requires the contribution of extracellular Ca2+. During the plateau phase, Ca2+ is entering the cell from the extracellular fluid, contributing to total intracellular calcium concentration.

An additional channel called the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, is recruited during times of hypoxia. These channels are activated by low levels of ATP (high levels of ADP) and may serve as a protective mechanism against arrhythmias caused by ischemia (lack of blood flow). Specifically, if blood supply drops, so does available oxygen. With lower levels of oxygen, ATP production is compromised and becomes unavailable for the Na/K ATPase pump. The reduction in pump activity alters both Na+ and K+ gradients. The altered K+ gradient effects the RMP (ie., changes gradient for leak channels) and the effected cells RMP become more positive, sometimes even exceeding threshold, which increases the likelihood of spontaneous depolarizations (arrythmias). To protect against spontaneous depolarizations, cells are able to open additional K+ channels thereby increasing the K+ conductance, moving the RMP back to more negative values and away from threshold. This additional increase in K+ conductance is the result of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels. It is the ratio of ATP/ADP that sensitizes the K+ channels and induces their opening. ATP appears to be inhibitory while ADP is stimulatory to these channels.

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