• Module 1.0. Homeostasis, Membranes, Electrophysiology and ANS
  • Module 2.0. Skeletal Muscle and Special Senses
  • Module 3.0. Cardiovascular System
  • Module 4.0. Urinary and Respiratory Systems
  • Module 5.0. Digestive, Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
  • Appendix A. Gender
  • Appendix B. The Placebo Effect
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  • 3.6.1

    Composition of Blood

    Plasma makes up about 55% of an average individual's blood volume and is itself composed of around 92% water. Plasma is a type of colloid. The major colloidal proteins in blood plasma include albumin, globulins, and fibrinogens. Albumin is by far the most abundant plasma protein, comprising around 60% of the total blood proteins. Albumin is largely responsible for maintaining a relatively constant osmotic pressure (BCOP) within the cardiovascular system. Its relatively large size does not allow it to easily pass out of the bloodstream, thus inhibiting excessive water loss into the surrounding tissues. Albumin also serves as a type of transport vehicle for many other substances dissolved in the blood.

    Globulin is the next most abundant plasma protein and also plays an important role in transporting substances within the blood. Globulin proteins also include what are often called "antibodies".

    Fibrinogen is an important clotting factor. Blood plasma without any clotting factors is known as serum.

    The formed element component of blood is comprised of red blood cells, white blood cells and cell fragments (platelets). However, the largest contributor of the formed element portion of blood is the red blood cells. The red blood cells alone make up about 45% of the total volume of blood. When the percentage of total blood that is red blood cells is calculated it is called a hematocrit. Women generally have slightly lower hematocrits than males and living at higher elevations can increase a hematocrit slightly. Running and training in cardiovascular exercise can also cause a slight increase in hematocrit. The white blood cells and platelets make up a much smaller percentage of the total blood volume. These formed elements are found in a thin line between the red blood cells and the plasma. This thin white line is called the "buffy coat" or the "buffy layer".

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