CoverModule 1.0. Homeostasis, Membranes, Electrophysiology and ANS (Essay Questions)1.1. Homeostasis1.1.1. Homeostasis Defined1.1.2. Homeostatic Control Systems1.1.3. Feedback Response Loop1.2. Cell Transport; Water & Solutes1.2.1. Fluid Compartments1.2.2. Osmosis1.2.3. Diffusion of Solutes1.2.4. Active Transport1.2.5. Bulk Transport1.3. Electrophysiology1.3.1. Ions and Cell Membranes1.3.2. Membrane Potentials1.3.3. Graded Potential1.3.4. Action Potentials1.3.5. Refractory Periods1.3.6. Propagation of an Action Potential1.4. THE SYNAPSE1.5. THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM1.5.1. Organization of the Nervous System1.5.2. Structural Organization of the ANS1.5.3. The SNS and the PNS1.5.4. The Enteric Nervous System1.5.5. Physiology of the ANS1.5.6. Neurotransmitters of the ANS1.5.7. Receptors of the ANS1.5.8. Actions of the Autonomic Nervous System1.5.9. Table of Actions for the SNS and PNS and Some Common DrugsModule 2.0. Skeletal Muscle and Special Senses2.1. Structural Organization of Skeletal Muscle2.2.1. Neuromuscular Junction, Excitation-Contraction Coupling2.2.2. Muscle Contractures and Cramps2.3. Whole Muscle Contraction, Fiber Type, Fatigue and Muscle Pharmacology2.3.1. Motor Units2.3.2. Factors that Influence the Force of Contraction2.3.3. Energy Source for Muscle Contraction2.3.4. Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types2.3.5. Fatigue2.3.6. Muscle Pharmacology2.4. Smooth Muscle2.4.1. Smooth Muscle Contraction2.5. Control of Body Movement2.5.1. Voluntary Control of Muscle2.5.2. Reflexes2.6. Taste and Smell2.6.1. Taste2.6.2. The Sense of Smell2.7. Vision2.7.1. Structure of the Eye2.7.2. Focusing Light on the Retina2.7.3. Converting Light to Action Potentials2.7.4. The Retina2.7.5. Phototransduction2.7.6. Receptive Fields2.8. Hearing and Equilibrium2.8.1. The Nature of Sound2.8.2. The Hearing Apparatus2.8.3. Sound Vibrations to Action Potentials2.8.4. The Sense of Balance and EquilibriumModule 3.0. Cardiovascular System3.1. Structure of the Heart3.1.1. Chambers and Circulation3.2. Cardiac Cell Action Potentials3.2.1. Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle Cells3.2.2. Action Potentials in Cardiac Autorhythmic cells3.2.3. Cellular Mechanisms of Inotropy and Chronotropy3.3. Electrophysiology of Heart Muscle3.3.1. Heart Conduction System3.3.2. Electrocardiogram (ECG)3.3.3. Abnormal ECG - Current of Injury3.4. The Cardiac Cycle3.4.1. Cardiac cycle3.4.2. Cardiac Measurements and Pressure Volume Loops3.5. Blood vessels and Blood Pressure3.5.1. Arteries and Veins3.5.2. Capillaries3.5.3. Blood Pressure Regulation and Shock3.5.4. Capillary Exchange3.5.5. Myogenic and Paracrine Regulation of Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation3.6. Blood3.6.1. Composition of Blood3.6.2. Hematopoeisis3.6.3. Breaking Down Red Blood Cells3.6.4. HemostasisModule 4.0. Urinary and Respiratory Systems4.1. Function and Structure of the Kidney4.1.1. Urinary System Function4.1.2. Functional Anatomy of the Urinary System4.1.3. The Nephron: Functional Unit of the Kidney4.1.4. The Renal Corpuscle: Bowman's Capsule4.2. Physiology of Urine Production4.2.1. Filtration4.2.2. Renal Clearance4.2.3. Tubular Reabsorption4.2.4. Urine Concentration and Dilution4.2.5. Hormonal Regulation of Urine Production4.3. Acid/Base Balance4.3.1. Buffers4.3.2. Acid/Base Disturbances4.4. The Respiratory System4.4.1. Respiratory System Structure and Function4.4.2. Respiratory Membrane4.4.3. Respiratory pressures and Inspriation/Expiration4.4.4. Alveoli and Surfactant4.4.5. Pneumothorax4.5. Gas Exchange and Transport4.5.1. Gas Laws4.5.2. Partial Pressure Gradients in the Lung4.5.3. Alveolar Gas Equation4.5.4. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood4.5.5. Alveolar Ventilation4.5.6. Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio4.6. Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema4.6.1. Respiratory Control by the Medulla Oblongata4.6.2. Chemicals that Regulate VentilationModule 5.0. Digestive, Endocrine and Reproductive Systems5.1. Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System5.1.1. Layers of the Digestive Tract5.1.2. Enteric Nervous System5.1.3. Organs of the Digestive System5.2. Digestion5.2.1. Carbohydrates5.2.2. Proteins5.2.3. Lipids5.2.4. Lipoproteins5.3. Regulation of Digestive Secretions5.4. Endocrine System5.4.1. Overview of the Endocrine System5.4.2. Hormone Receptors5.4.3. Hormones of the Body5.4.4. Other Hormones: Melatonin and Pheromones5.5. The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland5.5.1. Structure and Function of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland5.5.2. The Posterior Pituitary5.5.3. The Anterior Pituitary5.5.4. Growth Hormone5.5.5. Prolactin5.5.6. Thyroid Hormones5.5.7. Adrenal Hormones5.6. Pancreas5.6.1. Insulin and Glucagon5.6.2. Diabetes Mellitus5.7. Reproductive System Anatomy5.7.1. Female Reproductive Anatomy5.7.2. Male Reproductive Anatomy5.7.3. Sexual Development at Puberty5.7.4. Male Reproductive Endocrine Axis5.7.5. Spermatogenesis5.7.6. Female Reproductive System: Oogenesis5.7.7. Ovulation and Fertilization5.7.8. The Ovarian Cycle5.7.9. The Uterine Cycle5.7.10. PregnancyAppendix A. GenderAppendix B. The Placebo EffectB.2.1. The Placebo EffectB.2.2. Examples of the Placebo EffectB.2.3. How do Placebos Work?B.2.4. Are Placebos Ethical?B.2.5. How do we validate actual effectiveness of placebosB.2.6. Tips for evaluating scientific evidenceB.2.7. What about Faith Healings

Sound Vibrations to Action Potentials

Transfer of Vibrations in Air to Vibrations in Fluids: The first challenge that our ears face is transferring the vibrations in the air, to vibrations in a fluid. Because the density of the fluid in the inner ear is much greater than the density of air it requires more energy to generate sound waves in the fluid than in the air. Think of being underwater at a swimming pool and listening to people talk, it is very hard to hear and understand. It is the middle ear's responsibility to amplify the sound waves so that their energy is not lost. This is accomplished in two ways. First, the arrangement of the ear ossicles amplifies the sound. Second, and probably more importantly, the tympanic membrane has about 20 times more surface area than the oval window. This size difference results in concentrating the energy on the oval window. Think of how you might move a large rock with a pry bar. You would place the fulcrum close to the stone to gain the maximal mechanical advantage of the bar. The long end of the bar would be analogous to the tympanic membrane and the short end would be analogous to the oval window. These mechanisms are so effective that very little, if any, energy is lost as it is transferred from air waves in the external ear to fluid waves in the internal ear.

Detection of Sound Waves of Different Frequencies: As explained earlier, sound waves of different frequencies are perceived as different pitches. Therefore, the inner ear needs a way of detecting the different frequencies. The structure in the inner ear tasked with this responsibility is the basilar membrane. Recall the design of the basilar membrane; it is narrow (thick) and stiff near the oval window and gradually gets wider and more limber as it progresses toward the helicotrema. Think of the example of the xylophone mentioned earlier. When you strike a key on a xylophone it always sounds the same because it always vibrates at the same frequency. Another analogy might be a guitar string. As you tighten a guitar string making it stiffer, it vibrates at a faster rate and produces a sound of a higher pitch. Also on the guitar as you shorten the string by pressing on a fret with your finger the pitch gets higher. At a given tension and length the guitar string always vibrates at the same rate so we always perceive it as the same pitch. The basilar membrane functions in much the same way. Each segment of the membrane has an innate frequency. If it were a guitar string and you plucked it at a certain point along its length it would always vibrate at the same rate at that point. A different point on the basilar membrane would vibrate at a different rate. When a vibration in the fluid reaches the segment of the basilar membrane that has the same innate frequency, it will cause the basilar membrane to vibrate. This phenomenon is known as resonance. Based on this principle of resonance the basilar membrane is able to respond to all of the different frequencies in the sounds we hear, within the range of human hearing.

Conversion of a Sound Wave to an Action Potential: The function of any sensory organ is to convert a sensory stimulus to an action potential that can then be transmitted to the brain. In this case, the sensory signal is the sound wave. The responsibility of converting vibrations into action potentials falls upon the inner hair cells in the cochlea.

Recall that the apical end of the hair cell contains stereocilia and that they are arranged in order of ascending lengths from one side of the cell to the other. The membranes of the stereocilia contain mechanically gated cation channels. Extending from the gate of the ion channel to the adjacent, taller, stereocilium is a fibrous protein called a tip link (see image below). In response to a fluid wave (caused by the stapes pressing against the oval window) the unique section of the basilar membrane moves. Since the outer hair cells are connected to the tectorial membrane, this movement causes the stereocilia to bend toward the longest stereocilium and creates tension. The resultant tension from the bending acts to pull the gates on the ion channels open. Consequently, when sterocilium bend in the opposite direction the tension decreases and the gates close.

Since the sterocilia are bathed in endolymph, when the gates on the cation channels open, K+ rushes into the cell, depolarizing the membrane. The resultant depolarization also activates a motor protein called prestin. Prestin is a contractile protein that when active causes the sterocilia to shorten, thus pulling on the tectorial membrane and at the same time accentuating the upward movement of the basilar membrane. The actions of prestin serve to amplify the signal, the result of which greatly enhances the sensitivity of the signal.

In addition, the up and down movement of the basilar membrane and associated outer hair cells forces endolymph fluid to flow within the organ of corti. This flow then causes the inner hair cells (not connected to the tectorial membrane) to bend. The bending induces depolarization of the inner hair cells. In contrast to activating prestin for amplification, the inner hair cell depolarization causes voltage gated Ca2+  channels to open and subsequent fusion of synaptic vesicles which then release the neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate induces an EPSP in the associated neuron. Thus, the outer hair cells serve to amplify movement while the inner hair cells release neurotransmitter sending action potentials to the brain. 

The axons of these neurons form the cochlear nerve that transmits the action potential to the auditory cortex of the brain. In hair cells at rest, about 10% of the K+ ion channels are open resulting in a low frequency of action potentials traveling to the brain when it is perfectly quiet. This allows for both an increase in action potential frequency when hair cells bend toward the longest stereocilium and a decrease in frequency of action potentials when the hair cells bend the other way (see image below).

It may seem odd that K+ instead of Na+ is used to depolarize the hair cells, but in the case of hair cells the driving force for K+ to enter the hair cells is very large. This is because of a specialized structure called the stria vascularis which actively secretes K+ from the perilymph into the endolymph. The active transport involves the Na+/K+ ATPase pump and a secondary active transport protein that moves in Na+, K+ and 2Cl- molecules into the cell. 

Since the cochlea of the inner ear is essentially filled with two extracellular fluids, perilymph and endolymph, the directional driving force for potassium to enter the cells needs to allow K+ to move into the hair cells (from endolymph) through the apical surface and then exit the hair cell (into perilymph) through the basolateral surface so that it can be recycled back to the endolymph. This can be a bit complicated to understand because the concentrations of K+ in the endolymph match the concentrations of K+ in the cytoplasm, essentially eliminating any movement due to concentration differences. So why does the driving force favor K+ to move into the cell, even though concentrations gradients are nearly equivalent? The answer lies in the endocochlear potential. The endocochlear potential is derived from the sum of two potentials: a potential between the endolymph and perilymph formed by active secretion of the K+ into the endolymph by the stria vascularis (80mV), and a potential formed between the cytoplasm of hair cells and the perilymph as K+ passively diffuses out of the hair cell (40mV). Thus the endocochlear potential is about 120mV between the endolymph and the perilymph. This potential drives K+ from the endolymph into the cytoplasm of the hair cell (depolarization) and then to the perilymph only to be recycled by the stria vascularis back to the endolymph. Loss of this endocochlear potential appears to be a frequent cause of hearing loss.

Conversion of Sound Wave to Action Potential
Image by BYU-Idaho student Jared Cardinet Fall 2014

Hair Cells of the Spiral Organ

Perception of Sound: Once the action potential is generated and sent to the brain it is the function of the auditory cortex to convert that action potential into a perception. Each region of the cochlea is hardwired to its own specific region of the auditory cortex. When that particular region of the brain receives input from the ear we perceive the unique pitch associated with that frequency of the sound wave. It's kind of like a piano where each key is like a different segment of the cochlea. That key is linked to a specific string in the piano such that each time the key is struck we hear the same sound. In this case, the strings would be like a specific region in the auditory cortex. Each time an action potential reaches that specific segment of the auditory cortex we perceive the same sound. Therefore, the pitch is determined by the region of the brain that receives input from the cochlea. Loudness, on the other hand, is determined by the number of action potentials that reach the brain. Recall that the loudness of a sound is a function of the amplitude of the sound wave. Sound waves of higher amplitude cause the hair cells to vibrate more vigorously, which would cause more ion channels to open. This would result in a greater depolarization of the hair cell, more Ca2+ entry through the voltage-gated ion channels and more neurotransmitter release. The end result is a greater frequency of action potentials going to the auditory cortex, which is perceived as a louder sound. A common misconception is to equate the frequency of action potentials with the frequency of the sound waves. The frequency of action potentials is a function of the amplitude of the sound wave whereas the frequency of the sound waves determines which portion of the auditory cortex receives the action potentials.

In addition, the brain can actually “fine” tune hearing by controlling action potential frequency via efferent neurons. That’s right, the brain can actually send signals (via efferent neurons) from the auditory cortex in addition to just receiving them (afferent neurons). The efferent neurons sent by the brain synapse on the outer hair cells and some afferent axons. When the brain uses these efferent neurons, they act to suppress the responsiveness of the hair cells connected to the efferent neuron in use. These efferent neurons use acetylcholine to open up nonselective cation channels, triggering the entry of Ca++. In this case, the Ca++ acts to open Ca++ activated K+ channels, causing a hyperpolarization event. Dampening frequency allows the brain to filter out unwanted sounds and focus on sounds that we are wanting to hear in noisy environments. They may also be important during sleep to help dampen all sounds.  

Hearing Loss

There are three forms of hearing loss: conductive, central, and sensorineural. Conductive hearing loss is a result of sound waves being unable to move from the external ear to the inner ear. This can be caused by a plugged ear canal (excessive ear wax), infection of the middle ear or calcification of the stapes to the oval window. Anything that prevents conduction of sound through the external ear or proper vibration of the middle ear bones is termed conductive hearing loss. Central hearing loss results from damage to the auditory cortex, usually caused by a stroke. Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by damage to the structures of the inner ear (hair cells, cochlear neurons, viscous fluid). A common cause of sensorineural hearing loss is exposure to loud sounds. In humans, this loss is irreversible at present. Interestingly, birds have the ability to regenerate hair cells after complete destruction. Study of hair cells in birds may one day lead to the ability to replace damaged hair cells in humans.

It is interesting to note that as we age, we tend to lose the ability to hear very high frequency sounds. This appears to be from a lifetime of wear and tear to the hair cells located closer to the oval window end of the cochlea.  This is where the basilar membrane length is shorter and thicker, and where high energy / high pitch sound waves are experienced. 

End-of-Chapter Survey

: How would you rate the overall quality of this chapter?
  1. Very Low Quality
  2. Low Quality
  3. Moderate Quality
  4. High Quality
  5. Very High Quality
Comments will be automatically submitted when you navigate away from the page.