Energy efficiency is a significant factor of all modern residential construction. The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) created by the International Code Council (ICC) in 2000 set the standard for energy efficiency requirements for building construction, including residential buildings. Each successive version of the energy code since that time has increased the requirement for energy efficiency in building construction. This include the standards for a wide variety of building components and assemblies such as windows, doors, walls, floors, and ceilings. Adoption of a specific version of the energy code is done on a local state by state, or county by county basis. Some jurisdictions have no requirements while others have requirements that are significantly more stringent than the IECC code standard. In addition, a local jurisdiction may choose the adoption of an older or newer code year standard.
For Example, in the year 2018 the city of Rexburg, Idaho required residential construction to meet the standards for the 2012 IECC code, while at the same time requiring commercial construction tomeet the standard of the 2015 IECC code standards. The 2015 IECC requires a significant increase in the energy efficiency requirements. The energy efficiency of a building is commonly calculated using the R value of the various building components. The R value is a measure of a materials resistance to heat transfer. The higher a materials R value the slower the transfer of heat will be. The R value of individual building components are published in charts such as can be found at:
Table of Contents
R Value and Efficiency Codes
Insulation material typically has either the total R value, or the R value per inch of thickness of the material listed in the product literature. The total R value of a building component such as a wall is determined by the total of all of the materials in the assembly. In addition, the air film on the exterior and interior of the wall can add a small amount to the total R value of the assembly. Figure 11-1 shows examples of several wall assemblies with the total R value calculations. The wall on the left is a standard 5-1/2 stud wall with fiberglass insulation with a total R value of 21.53. The wall on the right has the addition of three quarter inch extruded foam insulation for a total of R25.28
Figure 11-1 Wall assemblies R value totals
Software such as REScheck by the Department of Energy can be used to check a wall if a wall assembly meets the code requirements for a specific area. The software can be downloaded at: https://www.energycodes.gov/rescheck
The REScheck establishes the assemblies’ compliance using two variables, the cavity insulation and the continuous insulation. Figure 11-2 shows an example of the REScheck compliance for the 21.53 wall assembly with the IECC 2009 code requirements. The example shows that this insulation assembly exceeds the 2009 code requirements by 8.9%
Figure 11-2 REScheck of 21.53 wall insulation assembly check for compliance with the 2009 IECC.
Changing to the 2012 code requirements shows that the same assembly does not meet the 2012 code requirement and is deficient by 7.1%. Replacing the cavity insulation with a high performance R21 insulation would meet the minimal 2012 requirements.
Figure 11-3 REScheck of 21.53 wall insulation assembly check for compliance with the 2012 IECC.
The 2015 IECC code increases the requirements even further. The current insulation system would fail by over 15%. In addition, the 2015 code requirements have minimum requirements for both the cavity insulation and the continuous insulation. The code requirements read 20 + 5 or 13 + 10. The first number is the minimum cavity requirements and the second is the continuous insulation minimum requirements. The reason for this change is to minimize the effect of thermal bridging. This is caused because the two by six studs which are placed at sixteen inches on center only have an R value of 6.88 which is less than half of the R19 wall insulation. Ten percent of the wall area only has an R value of 9.1. Installing three quarters of an inch of extruded polystyrene insulation which has an insulation value of R3.75 on the exterior of the wall would work together with the other building components to meet the 2015 requirements (Figure 11-4).
Figure 11-4 REScheck of 25.28 wall insulation assembly check for compliance with the 2015 IECC.
Types of Insulation
The energy codes seek to establish minimum standards for energy efficiency without being overly prescriptive of the actual building assemblies. A wide range on insulation materials and systems can be used to meet the energy requirements. Insulation material can be classified by both the insulation material and the installation method. Figure 11-4 shows an example of a mock wall assembly using innovative structural framing method designed to test the use of two by four wall construction with two inch ridged insulation sandwiched on the outside to meet the IECC 2015 insulation requirement of 13+10
Figure 11-5 Structural testing of innovative framing method to allow for two inch rigid sheathing insulation.
Insulation materials include, fiberglass, cellulose, mineral wool, polystyrene, polyisocyanurate, and polyurethane. Installation meth ods include rolls or batts, loose fill, ridged sheets, and formed in place. Some insulation materials can be installed using a number of installation methods, and some are only available using a single installation method. One of the most vertical and popular installation material is fiberglass.
Fiberglass insulation is made from extremely fine glass fibers. It is made from molten glass that is blown or spun into extremely fine glass fibers. It is estimated the forty to sixty percent of fiberglass insulation is made from recycled material. Fiberglass is available in several different forms including blankets (batts or rolls), loose fill, and rigid sheets.
Fiberglass Blanket Insulation
Fiberglass blanket insulation is available in an array of lengths, widths, thickness, and densities. The length is usually classified as either a roll or batt. Roll insulation is long continuous roll of material that is cut to finished length on the job site. Batts are lengths that are precut into individual pieces, usually sized to fit within standard wall stud heights such as 93 inches which can save some installation time. Blanket insulation is also made in widths to match standard wall stud framing spacing such as sixteen inches or twenty-four inches on center. In addition, blanket insulation is available in a number of standard thicknesses to correspond with standard framing material such as three and a half and five and a half inches thick.
Figure 11-6 Fiberglass blanket insulation.
CC-BY-Knauf Insulation-NC-SA: https://books.byui.edu/-ksXt
Blanket insulation is also available in I number of densities and R Values. Densities include low density, medium density, and high density. For example, Insulation sized to fit into standard two by four wall cavities are available in a low density of R11, a medium density of R13 and a high density of R15. Insulation sized for two by six wall cavities can be purchased in a medium density of R19 and a high density of R21. Wider batts can have a R value such as R38 for twelve-inch-thick batts and R49 for fifteen and a half inches thick.
Figure 11-7 Fiberglass blanket insulation is available in a wide variety of thick nesses.
Fiberglass insulation is also available with a number of different facing including foil faced, Kraft faced, and unfaced. Foil faced insulation in not as popular as it used to be because of the higher cost than Kraft faced or unfaced fiberglass insulation. Usually it is now considered a special order item and can cost as much as a third more than other types. The advantage of foil faced is the foil can serve as a radiant barrier when installed adjacent to a dead air space which can add an addition R 2 to the insulation assembly. Radiant barriers can also be purchased as a separate item. In addition, foil faced has a higher rating as a vapor barrier.
Figure 11-8 Foil faced fiberglass insulation.
CC-BY-MTA Capital: https://books.byui.edu/-LsEq
Kraft Faced Insulation
The facing on kraft faced insulation is made by sandwiching a layer of tar or other bituminous material between layers of kraft paper. The kraft paper give the insulation a level of vapor barrier resistance and provides a convenient means of attachment to the wall framing.
Figure 11-9 Kraft faced insulation.
CC-BY-pelennor-NC-ND: https://www.flickr.com/photos/pelennor/7841160586/in/photostream/ Unfaced fiberglass insulation has no facing and is usually friction fit between the wall framing. Unfaced insulation also requires a separate vapor barrier to be installed when a vapor barrier is required.
Figure 11-10 Unfaced insulation
Fiberglass blanket insulation can also be used in attic insulation. Batts can be installed between the ceiling joists. Additional layers can be installed on top of the first layer crosswise to the preceding layer. Figure 11-11 shows an example of two layers of fiberglass insulation installed in an attic. Attic blanket insulation is usually installed unfaced.
Figure 11-11 two layers of fiberglass blanket insulation installed in an attic space.
Fiberglass Loose Fill Insulation
Fiberglass insulation is also available in loose fill form for use in attics and walls. Fiberglass insulation installed in open attic space is usually installed by using a commercial insulation blowing machine to spread loose fiberglass fibers in a layer in the attic. The required R value is achieved by filling the space to the required depth. Loose fill fiberglass has an R value of 2.5 to 2.7 per inch of thickness. Using a figure of R2.5 per inch, 19.6 inches of loose fill fiberglass insulation would need to be installed to meet the R49 ceiling 2012 IECC code requirement for Rexburg, Idaho. The code also requires one depth marker for every 300 square feet of attic area to be installed in the space to confirm the proper amount of insulation is installed (Figure 11-12).
Figure 11-12 Fiberglass loose fill attic insulation.
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Loose fill fiberglass insulation can also be installed in wall cavities. The traditional method for installing loose fill fiberglass insulation in wall cavities is to install barrier over the face of the studs and fill the cavities by blowing in insulation. The barrier can be a vapor barrier material such as is shown in Figure 11-13, or netting material. One trade name for loose fill wall insulation is known as the “blow-in-blanket system”.
Figure 11-13 Loose fill fiberglass insulation installed behind plastic vapor barrier.
Newer methods of installing loose fiberglass insulation in wall cavities mix the glass fibers with a small amount of adhesive and it is sprayed in the wall cavity. The insulation sticks to itself and into the cavity without the need for barriers. As the fibers are being sprayed, a second technician vacuums the surplus material and it is put back into the blower where it is mixed with new material and reapplied to the wall. One trade name for this type of insulation in known as “Spider” insulation by the John Manville company. The insulation is sprayed into the cavity and then compacted and smoothed using a roller that spans across the studs. One major advantage that loose fill fiberglass has over traditional blanket fiberglass insulation is the ability to completely fill the wall cavity, particularly behind wires, pipe, and other obstructions in the stud cavity (Figure 11-14).
Figure 11-14 Spray fiberglass wall insulation.
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Rigid Fiberglass Insulation
Rigid fiberglass is formed into panels and a large variety of shapes and sizes such as insulation for ductwork and piping. It is also available in a wide variety of thicknesses and densities. Figure 11- 15 shows example of some rigid insulation panels. A wide variety of surface covering are also available.
Figure 11-15 Rigid fiberglass insulation.
Cellulose insulation is made from recycled paper products such as newspaper. The newspaper is ground into small pieces and turned into fibers. The majority of cellulose insulation is made from recycled paper products. The fibrous pieces are treated with Borate to increase fire and insect resistance. Cellulose insulation can be used for both attic and wall insulation in both loose fill and compacted form.
Loose Fill Cellulose Insulation
Loose fill cellulose insulation is most often used as insulation in open attic space. Packages of tightly packed bundles of cellulose insulation are placed into commercial insulation blowers which break up the compacted fibers and allow them to be placed in the attic space in evenly compacted layers. Loose fill cellulose insula tion has an R vale between 3.2 and 3.8 per inch of thickness which is higher than for fiberglass blown in insulation. Using a figure of R3.5 per inch would require fourteen inches of attic insulation to meet the Rexburg, Idaho R49 attic insulation requirements. The building code also requires the placement of one level marker for every three hundred square feet of attic space (Figure11-15).
Figure 11-16 Installing loose fill cellulose insulation in an attic space. https://www.energy.gov/energysaver/weatherize/insulation/insulation-materials
Cellulose Wall Insulation
Cellulose is installed as wall insulation using both the damp spray and dense pack method of installation. Damp spray cellulose is installed using a sprayer that adds a small amount of moisture or adhesive to the cellulose as it is sprayed into the cavity. When using water, the water activates the natural starches inherent in the fibers which act to bind the fibers together and to the structure. Adhesives also glue and bind the fibers together. The cellulose is compacted
flush to the stud cavity surface using rollers and any excess is trimmed off. The damp fibers need time to dry before the insulation is covered. Drying can take twenty-four to thirty-six hours depending upon the air temperature and humidity. (Figure 11-16).
Figure 11-17 Damp spray cellulose insulation installed in a wall stud cavity.
Dense pack cellulose is installed be attaching a strong fabric membrane to the wall surface. Holes are made in the membrane in each stud cavity and a special blower is used to fill and pack the cavity with cellulose material (Figure 11-17).
Figure 11-18 Dense pack cellulose installation is able to completely fill wall cavities in spite of the blocking and other obstruction in the wall cavity.
The R value of both wet spay and dense pack cellulose is dependent upon the density of the installation, but is commonly between 3.6 and 3.8 per inch which is comparable to high density fiberglass blan ket insulation, but has the added advantage of significantly reduce air infiltration.
Mineral Wool Insulation
Mineral wool insulation is one of the oldest forms of insulation material. It is made in a process where rock or other minerals are heated to high temperatures until they become molten and streams of air, or other processes are used to create very fine mineral fibers that are formed into insulation materials. Mineral wool goes by other names and trade names such as rock wool, slag wool, stone wool, or glass where the prefix identifies the type of mineral used in creating the product such as rock or blast furnace slag. Mineral wool is able to stand high temperatures and in impervious to moisture damage.
Mineral wool can be formed into blankets, sheets, or fibers that can be installed using standard insulation techniques. Mineral wool insulation products have seen a resurgence in availability and use in recent years. Mineral wool has a slightly higher R value per inch than fiberglass with a standard five-and-a-half-inch thickness having a value of R23 as opposed to R19 from comparable fiberglass. Rockwool is sold only unfaced, so a separate vapor barrier should be installed when required. (Figure 11-19).
Figure 11-19 Rockwool insulation.
By Øyvind Holmstad [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Matter_av_steinull_1.JPGCommons:
Rigid Foam Insulation
Rigid sheet foam insulation is available in a number of product types including, expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene and polyisocyanurate foam sheathing.
Expanded Polystyrene Insulation
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is easily recognized in the form of commercial consumer products such as foam plate, trays and drinking cups by its white color and beaded texture. It is made by expanding hard polystyrene beads using heat. As the beads expand they adhere to each other in the shape of the mold form. A common name for expanded polystyrene is bead board. Expanded polystyrene is an excellent insulation material that has a wide range of application in the construction industry. It if formed into sheets of standard size such as four feet by eight feet and thickness from one half inch to thirteen inches. Expanded polystyrene can also easily be formed into shapes such as for insulating concrete forms, or substrates for a stucco base.
Figure 11-20 Expanded polystyrene.
By Motokichirou [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons
The R value of expanded polystyrene is rated at approximately R4 per inch of thickness. Although EPS has a lower R value per inch than extruded polystyrene is considered the best value as it is half the cost per square foot. Expanded polystyrene is not rated for ground contact it does absorb moisture and needs to be treated with insecticides to resist insect damage. It is also more fragile than extruded polystyrene and is sometimes manufactured with foil or plastic facing material (Figure 11-20).
Figure 11-21 Expanded polystyrene insulation.
Extruded Polystyrene Insulation
Extruded polystyrene insulation is recognized by it typical blue, pink, or green color which is specific to the manufacture such as Dow, Blue Styrofoam; Owen Corning, Pink; Kingspan, Green Guard; or Orange, Knauf Polyfoam. Other manufactures also supply it in different colors. Extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) is stiffer, stronger, and offers a higher R value per inch than expanded polystyrene foam and is rated at R5 per inch of thickness. The higher R value also comes with an increased price per square foot. It is also considered a better product for below ground insulation and is often used in installations such the foundation insulation shown in Figure 11-21. The foundation will be backfilled and a concrete slab pour upon the top for the main floor of the residence.
Figure 11-22 Extruded Polystyrene insulation installed in a below ground application.
XPS foam is also frequently used in a variety of other insulation situations such as the example in Figure 11-22 which shows the installation of a Dow Styrofoam© product which is manufactured with grooves for installing batten strips to anchor the exterior siding to.
Figure 11-23 XPS insulation with grooves to installing batten strips for attaching exterior siding.
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Figure 11-23 shows an example of extruded polystyrene insulation being installed underneath a concrete basement floor. This help to make the basement living space less cold and damp and more comfortable.
Figure 11-24 Extruded polystyrene insulation being installed underneath a concrete basement floor slab.
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Polyisocyanurate Foam Sheathing
Polyisocyanurate is also known as PIP, Poly, or Iso. The process of manufacturing the foam produces a low-conductivity gas within the cells which result in a material with a higher R value than other types of foam, typically around R8 per inch. Tests have shown that the foam loses some R value over time as the low-conductivity gas diffuses out of the panels and is replaced by air in a process known as thermal drift. Tests have also shown that the majority of thermal drift occurs in the first two years, after which the R value remains stable. It is also costlier than both expanded and extruded polystyrene. Often the sheathing has a reflective foil facing which help to limit the thermal drift. The reflective surface of the foil facing when place adjacent to an air space can add R2 to the effective insulation value of the foam (Figure 11-25).
Figure 11-25 Polyisocyanurate Foam Sheathing.
By thingermejig (Polyisocyanurate Insulation Board) [CC BY-SA 2.0
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Polyisocyanurate_insulation_boards.jpg
Spray Foam Insulation
Polyisocyanurate foam can also be used for spray, or foam-in-place application. Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) is supplied to the installer in two pressurized containers, a Part A and Part B. One container is poly and the other is isocyanate. The chemicals are mixed in an application gun and sprayed on the surface where it adheres and expands thirty to sixty times the original volume. Spray foam can be categorized into two types, light-density open-cell and medium-density closed-cell foam.
Light-density open cell spray foam is a semi rigid material that expands during the application to fills the crack and voids and adheres to irregular surfaces. It is lower in cost than closed-cell spray foam and has a lower R value of around R4 per inch. The greater volume of expansion makes it ideal for fill deep wall cavities. While it does slow down the transmission of vapor, it is not considered a vapor barrier, but at thickness over five and a half inches it serves as an air barrier.
Medium-density closed cell spray foam is stronger and more rigid and also has a higher R value of five to six per inch. The higher R value does come at a higher cost. Closed-cell spray foam serves as both a vapor and air barrier.
Spray polyurethane foam is measured and estimated using the board-foot method of measurement. One board foot is the measure of volume of spray foam that is one-foot by one-foot square and one inch thick. The square footage of the wall area (in FT2) multiplied by the thickness in inches determines the board-foot quantity of insulation needed.There are a number of formulation of spray foam, some utilize a petroleum base and other a soy base.
Figure 11-27 Spray polyurethane foam installation.
Increased standards for building energy efficiency and insulation requirements also lead to additional challenges with moisture control, particularly, within the building wall cavities. All air contains moisture in the form of water vapor and is measured by the relative humidity. Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air measured as a percentage relative to the amount of water need
Figure 11-26 One board foot
Spray polyurethane foam is used in conjunction with dense pack cellulose in a hybrid application. One or two inches of foam is sprayed in the cavity on the outside of the wall and the balance of the wall is filled with cellulose insulation. This allows for many of the benefits of both. The increase insulation and water/air barrier benefits of the SPF and the lower cost of the dense pack cellulose.
to achieve full saturation at a given temperature. In simple terms warmer air is able to contain more moisture than is cold air. When warm moist air cools, the water vapor in the air condenses out of the air in the form of liquid water.
Heated buildings in cold climates contain warm moist air because the building is heated and moisture is produced by a wide range of normal human activities such as cooking, bathing, sweating, and even breathing. In the natural course of events, heat moves from warm to cold, or outward, from the building through floor, roof, and wall cavities. As the warm moist air contacts cold surfaces such as the exterior wall framing or sheathing it cools and is no longer able
to sustain the previous level of moisture and the water vapor con denses on the framing components. Damp moist building components which are not able to properly dry become an ideal medium for mold to grow and flourish. This problem is exacerbated when the moisture is not allowed to naturally dry and gets trapped inside the building cavity (Figure 11-28).
Figure 11-28 In cold climates the warm moist air migrates out of the building. When the warm moist air hits the cold wall sheathing the moisture condenses in the wall cavity.
The opposite situation occurs in hot moist climates. In this situation the warm moist air is on the outside of the building and when the building is air conditioned the cold dry air is on the interior of the building. As the warm moist air transfers through the wall cavity it
Figure 11-29 In warm climates the warm moist air migrates into the building. When the warm moist are contacts the cold drywall the moisture condenses in the wall.
warm moist air in
a kitchen created
damage as it
a wall cavity and
the exterior OSB
eventually contacts the cold dry inside face of the drywall and
Figure 11-30 Mold formed on cold OSB sheathing
condenses onto the inside surface (Figure 11-29).
It is impractical to design buildings that never get wet as moisture can enter into the building cavities from both the inside and outside of the building. Vapor barriers are used to help slow the transmission
of water vapor into the building cavities. Materials have a vapor transmission rate which is measured in perms. The International Residential Code (IRC) identifies three classifications of vapor bar riers which are shown in Table 11-1.
IRC Water Vapor Retarder Classification
Class Material that Meet the Class
(Grains/hr./sq.ft./in. Hg) 0.1 perm or less
0.1< perm ≤ 1.0 perm
(per the IRC)
Class I Sheet polyethylene, unperforated aluminum foil
Class II Kraft-faced fiberglass batts Class III 1.0< perm ≤ 10.0 perm Latex or enamel paint Table 11-1 IRC Water vapor perm table.
The local climate conditions have an important influence on the need, material, and placement of the vapor barrier. In northern climate where the need for winter heating is the greatest, the vapor barrier should be place in the inside of the building envelope to slow the transmission of the warm moist interior air towards the outside colder air. The colder the climate, and the greater the temperature difference between the warm moist interior air, and the cold dry exterior air, the greater the need for a more robust vapor barrier.
In warm southern climates the vapor barrier should be placed towards the exterior side of the building envelope because the need for air conditioning is greater and the warm moist air is on the outside of the building, while the cold dry air is on the inside of the building. In mild or balanced climates there may not be a need for a vapor barrier.
The IECC establishes seven climate zones (1-7) in the United States and outlying territories and further subdivides into three moisture regions, Moist (A), Dry (B), and Marine (C). Specific vapor barrier requirements are established by climate zone and moisture region.
Figure 11-31 IECC climate zone and moisture region map.
The document also lists climate zones and moisture regions on a county by county basis. Rexburg, Idaho is located in Madison County, Idaho and has a climate zone/moisture region designation of 6B (Figure 11-33).
Figure 11-32 IECC climate zone and region information for Madison County, Idaho. https://www.iccsafe.org/wp-content/uploads/proclamations/TN06-Vapor-Retarders_pdf.pdf
The IECC requirements for climate zone 6B identifies two types of
wall/vapor barrier assemblies that are approved. The first is identi
fied as vented cladding over wood structural panels with
fiberboard or gypsum board sheathing. This is essentially
traditional wood framed construction with stud framed walls and
sheathing on the exterior and drywall on the interior. The vapor
barrier can be Class I or Class II, however, Class II is generally
recommended and Class I is not recommended when air
conditioning is operated for an extended period of time during the
cooling season. Figure 11-33 shows an example of this type of
The second approved assembly method is fashioned around the
IECC 2015 energy requirements for higher R value continuous
insulation. The intent of this wall assembly is to dry towards the
interior of the building. The extruded polystyrene foam is listed as
a Class II vapor barrier. The vapor barrier on the interior of the
wall is general not required. The continuous insulation on the
exterior of the building keeps the interior of the of the wall
assembly warmer and reduces the moisture condensation within
the wall assembly. A Class I vapor is not approved on the interior
of the building because of the possibility of creating a double
vapor barrier condition which could trap the moisture within the
wall and limit the ability of the wall assembly to dry in the case
that any moisture gets into the wall cavity (Figure 11-34).
Figure 11-33 Vapor barrier requirements in Zone 6B.
Smart Vapor Barriers
A newer class of vapor barriers have been developed which are
known as smart vapor barriers. These type of vapor barriers are
able to react to changing temperature and moisture conditions.
During warm temperatures when walls can become saturated with
vapor the vapor barrier opens up and becomes more permeable and
allows the vapor to exit from the wall cavity. During colder times
the vapor barrier acts more like a traditional vapor barrier and
becomes less permeable and blocks the entry of moisture (Figure
11-34). Some smart vapor barriers are:
• Pro Clima: INTELLO PLUS
• CertainTeed: MemBrain
Figure 11-34 CertainTeed MemBrain vapor barrier installed.
In addition, some manufactures are creating blanket insulation with
smart vapor barrier technology.
Figure 11-35 Wall assembly with continuous an exterior XPS foam
insulation vapor barrier.
Door and Window Sealer
Door and window sealant is poly spay foam that has been conveniently package in small canisters. Spray foam is available in many different formulations and uses. The most common usage is sealing around window and door installations. It is also excellent for use in sealing crack in general. The average home construction has many cracks crevices and holes where air and moisture vapor can get through which can significantly increase the energy usage requirement for the home. Common areas that need additional attention to air sealing include penetrations for electrical boxes and fixtures, holes drilled in plates for the
installation of electrical wires and pipe, and joint cracks between walls and floors, or ceilings.
Door and window sealant is available in
single use disposable cans, usually
twelve or sixteen ounces in size. They
are designed for a single use application.
After the initial use the foam in the can
hardens in the applicator nozzle and
straw and cannot be reused.
Professional application guns are also
available with larger canisters that
can be improved by lightly misting the area to be foamed with water before applying the sealant.
Figure 11-37 Door and window sealant.
CC-BY-Housing Inovation Alliance-NC-SA:
In spite of the difficulty, an estimate could be made. One
screw onto the application gun. Also available are screw on cans of cleaner that allow the gun to be cleaned and the canister to be reused (Figure 11-35).
Figure 11-36 Professional spray foam application system. https://www.google.com/search?site =imghp&tbs=sur:fm&tbm=isch&q=g reat+stuff&chips=q:great+stuff,g_1:s
manufacturer claims that a single twelve ounces can contains enough sealant as twenty-two tubes of calk, or seven quarts1. This converts to an expanded volume of approximately one quarter of a cubic foot or 404 cubic inches per can. This would mean that each
Estimating the quantity of door and window sealant can be difficult because of variations in the type of foam and the application method.
ounce of spray foam would expand to a volume equal to 33.7 cubic inches:
The polyurethane spray foam reacts with water in the atmosphere
������= ����. ������.��
the cause the foam to expand and cure. Over dry air can have a detrimental effect on the expanding and curing process. The process
Making an assumption that spray foam was installed around a door or window opening filling a one quarter inch wide crack two inched deep, each lineal foot of window crevice would require six cubic inches of spay foam:
������.× �� ����.× ���� ����. = ������.��
Each ounce of spray foam would fill six lineal feet of window open ing.
����.= ��. ������.
The twelve ounce can of spray foam would be able to fill seventy two lineal feet of window opening.
������= ����. ������.
Obviously this would only be an estimate as the width and depth of the opening to be filled would change with each situation, but this would be a good place to start to establish and basis for an estimate. Professional application spay foam is available in twenty-four and thirty ounce cans of professional foam. The professional foam has a greater expanding capability which the manufacture claims equals twenty-two and thirty-three quarts of caulk respectively which would equate to almost nine lineal feet per ounce. In addition to the smaller fill capacity for disposable cans of spray foam, there is also more waste. A standard will be established in this class of five lineal feet per ounce for the disposable spray foam and ten lineal feet for professional spray foam.
Insulation Material Estimating (Detailed)
This document provides a detailed overview of how to estimate the Insulation Material section of the Estimating Workbook
Table of Contents
Insulation Material Header
Completing the Insulation Material Header Section Excel Figure 11-1 shows and example of the blank header section of the insulation material subsection of the interior finish phase of the estimating template. The header allows for inputs with two different types of insulation and information about the square footage of attic insulation, square footage of wall insulation, square footage of floor insulation, square footage of window area, square footage of door area, rim joist length, and rim joist space height. In addition, once the header inputs are complete the wall insulation area will be calculated.
Excel Figure 11-1 Header section of the insulation material sub-section.
Square Footage of Attic Area Insulation
The square footage of attic insulation is determined by the square footage of the attic area. Often this will be equal to the square footage of floor area quantity in the basic takeoffs. There may be modification to that amount based upon the building construction. For example, a building may have sloped cathedral ceiling that is insulated using fiberglass blanket insulation, in contrast, the rest of the building is a flat ceiling with blow-in fiberglass or cellulose insulation. The header section allows for the input of two different type of insulation should there be a need. Building and wall section detail shown in Figure 11-38 has the insulation details highlighted. This shows that the ceiling insulation requirements will be for R49 blown-in insulation.
Figure 11-38 Wall section detail.
The wall section shows the attic insulation as R49 Blow-in type. No further details are provided and it is likely the building estimator could choose either a blown-in fiberglass or a blown-in cellulose application. The building ceiling is flat, so the square footage of floor area can be used for the square footage of attic area and that number is brought forward from the basic takeoffs and entered into the cell for Type 1insulation. Since there is only one type of insulation, the Type 2 cell is left blank.
Square Footage of Wall Insulation
The square footage of wall insulation is the square footage of the walls that have this type of insulation. The square footage quantity entered is the total square footage of the wall area. Doors, windows, and other openings are not subtracted from the total. The next two inputs will subtract the square footage of insulation for the openings. The square footage of wall insulation can be determined by totaling the square footage of wall are for all walls with the specific type of insulation from the basic takeoffs. Since there are two type of wall insulation, an R21 kraft faced insulation in the main floor walls and a R19 unfaced insulation in the basement insulation walls. In addition, the basement insulation walls have a six mill polyethylene vapor barrier installed. The square footage of wall areas is brought forward from the basic takeoffs.
Square Footage Type 1 Insulation
The square footage of wall area for type one includes both the total area of the exterior walls and the common wall as each wall type has the same insulation requirements. These quantities are added together and brought forward from the basic takeoffs.
Square footage of exterior walls + Square footage of common walls = Total type 1 wall area.
Type 1 Insulation Area: 912 ft2. + 176 ft2. = 1088 ft2.
Square Footage Type 2 Insulation
The square footage of Type 2 insulation is the total of the basement insulation walls. This quantity is brought forward from the basic takeoffs and entered into the header sections.
Square Footage Floor Insulation
The square footage of floor insulation allows for input of insulation installed in the floor area. This could include insulation in the floor joist area, or under slab rigid foam insulation. This project has no insulation identified and the totals will be left blank.
Square Footage Window Area
This cells allows input of the window area in the walls where insu lation is installed. This will subtract the window area from the total wall area quantity already input. The square footage of each window can be determined from the basic takeoffs and added together. Windows in walls without insulation such as the garage walls will be excluded from the total.
Square Footage Door Area
This cells allows input of the door area in the walls where insulation is installed. This will subtract the door area from the total wall area quantity already input. The square footage of each door can be determined from the basic takeoffs and added together. Doors in walls without insulation such as the garage walls will be excluded from the total.
Rim Joist Length
The rim joist length inputs allow for input of the length of rim joist where insulation is installed along the rim joist. This is the insulation in the floor cavity along the outside walls between the foundation walls and the first floor walls (Figure 11-38). The length of the rim joist was previously determined when calculating the floor framing and the length could be brought forward from the floor framing subsection of the framing phase of the estimating template.
Figure 11-39 Floor joist space insulation.
Rim Joist Space Height
This cell allows for the input of the rim joist height. This is equal to the total height of the floor joist space. The height of the rim joist space is determined an entered into the cells. Excel Figure 11-2 shows the completed insulation material header section.
Excel Figure 11-2 Insulation material header section complete.
Completing the Insulation Material Subsection The material is entered into the appropriate cells of the materials subsection using the materials userform based upon the type of insulation installed.
Ceiling Insulation Materials
The correct type 1 ceiling material information is placed in the Materials, Size, Units, and Unit Cost cells using the Materials userform. The Quantity is calculated by entering the SFQuantity formula in the cell based upon the square footage of attic area from the header section. The correct formula is shown as follows:
The completed formula in the spreadsheet is shown in Excel Figure 11-3.
Excel Figure 11-3 Formula for the type 1 ceiling insulation entered into the spreadsheet.
There is no Type 2 ceiling insulation and the cells will be left blank.
Wall Insulation Materials
The correct wall insulation material information is placed in the Materials, Size, Units, and Unit Cost cells using the Materials userform for both type of materials. The Quantity is calculated by using the SFQuantity formula in the cell based upon the square footage of each wall area from the header section. The correct formula for the Type 1 Wall Insulation is as follows:
SFQuantity(E23, F16, B23, F23)
Excel Figure 11-4 Formula for the Type 1 wall insulation.
The Type 2 wall insulation quantity would be calculated in the same manner.
Floor Insulation Material
There is no floor insulation material and the cells are left blank. Misc. Insulation Materials
The miscellaneous insulation materials include rim joist insulation, door and window seal, vapor barrier, and header insulation.
Rim Joist Insulation
The rim joist insulation will be calculated using the SFQuantity custom function. The quantity of rim joist insulation will be equal to the area of the rim joist length multiplied by the rim joist space height from the header section. Some modification will need to be made by including the multiplication of the rim joist length by the rim joist space height in the SFQuantity formula as is shown outline in red below:
SFQuantity(E29,F14*F15, B29, F29)
Excel Figure 11-5 Rim joist quantity formula.
Door and Window Seal
The door and window seal will be calculated using the LF quantity cell. The length will be calculated by adding the total perimeter of the windows and doors from the basic takeoffs and dividing by the 5.6 lineal feet per ounce factor that was previously calculated in the door and window seal section on page 20. The completed formula would be as follows:
The parenthesis is required around the formula to add the totals from the basic takeoffs. Excel Figure 11-?? Shows the pertinent cells in the basic takeoffs.
Excel Figure 11-6 Basic takeoffs showing the door and window perimeter totals.
Excel Figure 11-7 Door and window seal formula.
The kraft faced insulation will serve as the vapor barrier for the main floor type 1 insulation and no additional vapor barrier will be needed for that, however, there will be a six mill poly vapor barrier installed in the basement insulation walls. The SFQuantity custom function will be used to calculate the quantity of vapor barrier based upon the square footage of wall are from the header section. The information will be taken from the Square Footage of Wall Insulation, not the Wall Insulation Area calculated with the doors and windows areas removed. The formula will be as follows:
Excel Figure 11-8 Vapor barrier formula entered into the spreadsheet.
The header insulation allows for a different type of header insula tion than is installed in the walls. This project uses the same wall insulation type and no addition header insulation will be used. Estimate Example 11-1 shows the completed insulation material sub-phase.
All About Drywall
Drywall is also known as gypsum wallboard (GWB), sheetrock, plasterboard, and wallboard. It is manufactured by crushing the naturally occurring mineral, calcium sulfate dehydrates (gypsum) and then heating the powder in ovens to 350° F to drive off excess water. The dried powder is remixed with and other additives and extruded between layer of paper into sheets that are cut into standard sizes. Drywall in its modern from was first developed in 1916 and used in construction for the next quarter of a century, it wasn’t until after World War II that its use in residential house construction began to rapidly expand as is slowly replaced traditional lathe and plaster wall construction.
Modern drywall can be purchased in a variety of types, thicknesses, widths, and lengths. Types of drywall include standard drywall, fire resistant (Type X), water resistant drywall (green board), mold resistant drywall, and plaster baseboard (blue board)
Standard drywall is the most common type of drywall used and is available in the widest range of thickness, lengths and widths. It is commonly faced with white or cream colored paper on the face and brown on back. Standard drywall is manufactured in both standard weight walls and ceiling panels and lightweight wall and ceiling panels. It is available in a wide range of thicknesses, widths and widths. Available thicknesses from one quarter of an inch thick to one-inch-thick and widths of twenty-fours inches, forty-eight inches, and fifty-four inches and lengths from eight feet to sixteen feet. Recommended usage for different thicknesses include:
• ¼” Double layer walls, curved surfaces, sound attenuation systems.
• 5/16” Manufactured housing.
• 3/8” remodeling, base for rigid panels, double layer walls/ceilings, and curved surfaces.
• ½” & 5/8” any interior and some exterior surfaces. • ¾” & 1” interior walls; shaft walls, area separation walls, party walls, fire walls, stairways, duct enclosures.
Table 11-2 shows the sizes that standard drywall in manufactured in.
Gypsum Drywall Size Chart
Table 11-2 Standard drywall size chart.
Standard drywall is used in residential construction for most applications on the walls or ceilings. The most common thickness used is one half inch thick, however, standard one half inch thick drywall is not approved for installations on ceilings that have a truss or joist spacing of twenty-four inches on center. In this situation either 5/8-inch standard drywall, or lightweight ½ inch drywall that is approved for ceiling twenty-four-inch installation is used.
Figure 11-40 Standard twelve feet sheets of one-half inch drywall.
Fire Resistant Drywall
Standard drywall is naturally resistant to fire damage. The drywall contains water within the gypsum which, when heated, turns to steam and much of the thermal energy of the fire is dispersed. Eventually the heat of the fire will cause the drywall to crack in the same fashion as a dry lake bed. Type X drywall has glass fibers included in the gypsum core. The purpose of the glass fibers is to reinforce the drywall and minimize the cracks which give the wallboard a longer time period before it breaks down. Increased fire resistance can be increased by installing additional layer of drywall.
Figure 11-41 Firecode drywall label.
CC-BY-Arek Dreyer-NC-ND: https://books.byui.edu/-ADME
In a residential application the most common usage of fire resistant drywall is for the firewall that code requires to be installed between the house and an attached garage. The building code requires the firewall to be installed from the floor to the roof, however, if the ceiling garage ceiling is fire rated the fire wall can end at the ceiling. The building code requires that the fire resistant dry be installed on the exterior (garage side) of the wall. The minimum code thickness requirement for fire resistant drywall is one half inch, however, Type X drywall at one half inch thickness does not meet the requirement. Test have shown that 5/8-inch-thick Type X drywall will last for fifty-seven minutes when exposed to an 1850° F fire, whereas standard 5/8-inch drywall will last only twelve minutes. The code approved one half inch thick fire resistant drywall is known as Type C. This special drywall has additional glass fibers and vermiculite in the core. It has been shown that Type C can withstand an 1850° F fire for over two hours without any sign of failure.
Figure 11-42 Type X drywall installed on garage walls and ceilings.
Water Resistant Drywall
Water resistant drywall is commonly called green board because of its green color. It is drywall that is manufactured with a special water resistant gypsum core and water repellant paper. It is designed to be used as a base for ceramic or plastic wall tiles, or other finish panels in non-wet areas. It is not designed for the installation of ceramic tile where the tile will be exposed to running water. It is recom
mended that glass mat faced gypsum board, or cement board be used as a substrate for tile when it is exposed to running water. It is also not recommended that water resistant drywall be installed on a ceiling unless the framing members are no more that twelve inches on center. This product is available with both a regular and type X core in one half inch and five eights inch thicknesses and lengths of eight, ten and twelve feet.
Figure 11-43 Water resistant drywall installed on bathroom walls. CC-BY-Garann-SA:https://www.flickr.com/photos/iluvrhinestones/4548702334
Mold Resistant Drywall
Mold resistant drywall is manufactured to address the problem of mold forming in the surface of the drywall in areas where it is exposed to moisture. The gypsum core of drywall in impervious to mold, however, the paper facing on drywall can serve as food for mold spores and can encourage their growth where the moisture conditions are right.
Mold resistant drywall is manufactured with either a fiberglass facing or treated mold resistant facing. Some types can be used as an approved backing for direct installation of ceramic tile and others with the same limitation as water resistant drywall. It is available in both one half inch and five eights inch thicknesses and eight, ten and twelve foot lengths.
Figure 11-44 Mold resistant drywall installed in a bathroom on the walls and ceiling. CC-BY-Jesus Rodriquez: https://books.byui.edu/-MvDs
Plaster baseboard is recognized by its blue color. It is a special type of drywall that is used as a base for plaster coated walls. These wall types are finished by skim coating the entire walls will a plaster
coating. It is not appropriate for use with traditional gypsum wallboard compound.
Figure 11-45 Plasterboard drywall.
The installation of gypsum wallboard requires a number of additional accessory items to complete the installation and finishing including, adhesive, screws and nails, outside corner trim, joint tape, and drywall mud.
While it is not required to install drywall using adhesives the instal lation can be improved with the use of adhesives, particularly in helping to reduce nails pops in the finished drywall. The adhesive is used to attached the wallboard to the wall studs and plates. Types of adhesives commonly used are construction adhesive and spray foam type adhesives.
Figure 11-46 Gel adhesive (Need new Picture)
The makers of Touch and Seal foam adhesive suggest that a single twenty-four ounces can will create 480 lineal feet of one half inch glue bead. Traditional sixteen-inch stud spacing requires seven studs for every eight-foot piece of drywall. This means on eight-foot piece will need twenty-eight lineal feet of adhesive. A single twenty-four once can will attach 550 square feet of drywall, or 22 square feet of drywall per ounce.
Screws and Nails
Drywall is attached to wall and ceiling framing with either nails or screws, or a combination of both. Both the IRC and the Gypsum Association specify minimum nailing or screwing requirement for the attachment of drywall on both walls and ceilings. The requirement specifies both the spacing requirements and fastener size. Two nailing/screwing patterns are approved; the single nailing pattern and the double nailing pattern.
Figure 11-47 Drywall screws and nails.
Single Nailing Pattern
The single nailing pattern requires nails to be spaced 3/8 inch to ½ inch from the butt edges of the drywall fastened to the framing and 3/8 inch to 1 inch from the edge perpendicular to the framing. The drywall is nailed in the field of the panel a maximum of seven inches on center for ceilings and eight inches on center for wall. Using screws for attachment increases the maximum spacing requirements to twelve inches on the ceiling and sixteen inches on the walls. Figure 11-42 shows a diagram of the approve single nailing pattern.
Figure 11-48 Drywall single nailing pattern.
Double Nailing Pattern
The double nailing pattern requires nails or screws to be spaced 3/8 inch to ½ inch from the butt edges of the drywall fastened to the framing and 3/8 inch to 1 inch from the edge perpendicular to the framing. The edge nail or screw spacing follows the same spacing of a maximum of seven inches on center for the ceilings and eight inches on center for the walls. The first set of nails or screws for the drywall field are spaced a maximum of twelve inches on center for both ceilings and walls. A second set of nails or screws is placed two to two and a half inches away from the first nails. After nailing or screwing the second set, the first set of nails or screws are re-nailed to tighten and loose nails (Figure 11-43).
Estimating Screws and Nails
1.75 screws per square foot
Figure 11-49 Double drywall nailing pattern.
Outside corners of drywall need to be reinforced and protected from damage. Corner trim (bead) is typically installed on each outside wall corner. Several different type of drywall corner bead are avail able in addition to square corners. Other popular profiles include radius corners and beveled corners. Corner trim can also be installed
on the corners of drywall openings for passageways and around window jambs. Other types of trim are also available such as inside corners, edge trim, and expansion joints.
Kinds of drywall trim can be classified into three main types, metal trim, paper faced trim, and vinyl trim. (Figure 11-45).
Figure 11-50 Three types of drywall corner trim.
Metal Drywall Trim
Metal trim is the most common type of drywall trim used. It is available in many different profiles and uses. It is usually attached to the edges with nails or staples. In addition, a special drywall corner crimping tool can be used. This would also be the procedure for installing metal corners on metal stud walls as nails won’t hold to the metal studs and the head of drywall screws protrude to much for use on the corner bead. The short You Tube video below shows the installation of metal drywall corner bead using a crimping tool.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qA9FNU7x_kM Figure 11-46 shows a basement room with several pieces of metal corner bead installed along the edge of a shelf wall, around a ceiling ductwork protrusion, and around an entrance to a hallway.
Figure 11-51 Metal drywall corner bead installed ready for taping. CC-BY-nusitegroup-NC: https://www.flickr.com/photos/90985226
Paper Faced Drywall Trim
Paper faced drywall trim is manufactured with a metal corner or edge bonded to a paper facing. The drywall trim is installed by spreading a bead of drywall mud on both sides of the corner and pressing the paper tape into the wet mud and smoothing the seam with drywall taping knife. The drywall mud is allowed to dry and several additional coats of mud are placed over the trim to smooth and finish it. Figure 11-47 shows and example of forty-five-degree paper faced drywall trim installed on the outside corners of a pantry closet and square corner trim around door openings.
Figure 11-52 Paper faced drywall trim installed. Forty-five-degree angle trim installed on outside closet corners and square corner trim installed around door opening.
CC-BY-Kevin Haggerty-NC: https://www.flickr.com/photos/haggaret/75726156 Vinyl Drywall Trim
Vinyl drywall trim is manufactured in a wider range of shapes and style than the other types of drywall trim. There are two installation methods for installing vinyl drywall trim. The mud set method and the glue and staple method. Vinyl trim that is set using the mud set method is installed by placing a bead of drywall mud on each side of the corner and pressing the trim into the corner and smoothing it flat with a drywall knife. A second covering coat can be placed immediately over the bedded drywall trim.
The glue and staple method is installed by using a special spray-on adhesive. The adhesive is sprayed onto the back side of the trim and the trim placed over the corner. Staples are used to further anchor the trim to the drywall and a layer of taping compound placed over the corner bead. Short videos demonstrating both the mud set and glue and staple method of installing vinyl drywall trim.
Figure 11-53 Rigid and flexible vinyl drywall corner trim.
https://www.wconline.com/articles/90384-cornerbead-in-basements-and-bathrooms-vinyl-solution Estimating Drywall Trim
Drywall Trim Finish Methods and Materials
Estimating drywall trim requires the construction estimator to be aware of a variety of finish trim methods and materials and to be able to determine and understand the specific method that is going to be used on the construction project. Places that drywall trim can be used include, outside corners of walls and ceilings, around window openings, and around door openings.
Drywall trim on outside corners of walls and ceilings The most common place for installing drywall trim is on the exterior corners of walls and ceilings. Figures 11-48 through 11-51 shows examples of wall and ceiling corners which will require the application of corner trim.
Figure 11-54 Fireplace will need two forty-five-degree corners installed.
Figure 11-55 Wall and plant shelf corners.
Figure 11-56 Corner and door opening square corners.
Figure 11-57 Trey ceiling alcove will need square corner bead around perimeter.
Figure 11-52 shows a portion of a room which required drywall trim in a number of places including, corners at the hallway entrance, around the arched door opening, and the hallway opening in the background. Of note is the alcove above the door. Corner trim was used on the alcove sides and the sides and bottom of the alcove base projection. The top of the base projection, however uses a painted wood base and trim instead of drywall trim.
Figure 11-58 Multiple pieces of finished drywall corner trim.
Drywall trim around windows
Determining if drywall trim will be needed around window open ings will require the construction estimator to understand the method that will be used to trim the window. Some windows are manufactured at the full depth of the wall, or can be ordered with factory supplied jamb extensions, and require no drywall trim, but, instead, use wooden molding trim to finish the window such as the window shown in Figure 11-53.
Figure 11-59 Windows manufactured with frame designed to be installed flush to the drywall face will not require additional drywall corner trim.
Windows that are not manufactured with frames that are flush to the interior drywall face can also be installed with site fabricated jamb extensions and window trim can be installed in the same fashion as windows with flush manufactured frames. If this is the design intent as is shown in Figure 11-54, then the window will not need any additional drywall trim for the installation.
Figure 11-60 Window with site fabricated jamb extensions and trim will not require additional drywall trim.
Windows that are not manufactured with frames that are flush to the interior drywall face can also be installed with drywall returns on the head and jamb of the window. This installation will require drywall window trim on three sides of the window and the base of the window opening will have a window sill installed using wood or other material. Figure 11-55 shows and example of two windows that utilized drywall trim on three sides. the window in the left has the wallboard return installed, but not corner trim. The arch at the top of the window will require trim that can be made to conform to the arch shape such as flexible vinyl corner trim. The window on the left has had radius corner trim installed that has been taped and painted.
Figure 11-61 Two windows that require drywall corner trim to finish three sides of the window and a wood sill.
Windows can be installed with drywall corner trim on all four side such as is shown in Figure 11-56.
Determining the quantity of drywall trim for a specific project requires the construction estimator to gain an understanding of the specifics for that project. This may not be something explicitly spelled out in the construction documents. As has been shown, much depends upon the particular windows installed and the trim requirements for those windows. In addition, a residential construction company may have a certain standard such as basic trim package which offers drywall trim on three sides of the window opening with a wood sill and apron. They may offer the full window casing as an upgrade that can be purchased by the customer. Regardless of the particular situation, the construction estimator will need to make the effort to understand and become clear about the project specifics.
Figure 11-62 Drywall corner trim installed on all four side of the jamb return on this window.
Drywall Trim Around Doors and Other Openings
Drywall trim around door and other openings. The same situation as with windows openings also applies to doors and other openings. The opening may be trimmed with wood or other material, or it may utilize drywall trim to finish the opening. Figure 11-57 shows an example of a closet door opening that has no trim, either wood or drywall, installed. This door opening will most likely have a closet door installed in the space. The opening can be completed using one of several methods such as drywall corner trim, or wood door jambs and trim, or a combination of both.
Figure 11-63 Unfinished closet door opening.
Figure 11-58 shows a closet door finished with drywall corner trim. Estimating the drywall trim for this door would be two times the perimeter of the door opening.
Figure 11-64 Closet door jambs finished with drywall corner trim. CC-By-Lee Cannon-SA: https://www.flickr.com/photos/leecannon/10180496614
Figure 11-59 shows an exterior patio door that has drywall corner trim on one side of the opening. Estimating this door trim will be equal to the perimeter of the door opening.
Figure 11-65 Drywall corner trim on one side of this patio door.
Figure 11-60 shows and example of an elliptical archway that has been finished with drywall radius corner trim.
The two basic types of drywall tape are paper tape and mesh tape. Both can be used for finishing drywall joist and each has its plus and minuses.
Paper tape is the most common type of drywall tape used. It does not have any adhesive on the tape so it must be installed by applying a layer of joint compound over the joint or seam and pressing the tape into the compound and smoothing it down with a taping knife. Because it is embedded into joint compound, if gaps are allowed in the layer of compound, the air bubbles can form which doesn’t allow the tape to stick. Paper tape is not a s strong as mesh tape, but, doesn’t stretch like mesh tape, so it results in a stronger joint. Paper tape is also pre-creased, so it is easier to install in a corner. Equipment is also available that runs the paper tape through joint compound in a container so that it is pre-coated before installing. Both normal and setting joint compound can be used when installing paper tape.
Figure 11-67 Paper drywall tape. http://www.tymaterial.com/Drywall-Joint-paper tape-p23.html: Labeled for Non-commercial reuse with modifications
Figure 11-66 Elliptical archway finished with radius corner trim.
Mesh tape is made from a fiberglass mesh that has an adhesive on it, so the tape can be adhered to the drywall without the step of adding joint compound to the wall. This means that the tape can be installed in the entire room before covering with joint compound. Mesh tape is harder to install in corners because it is not pre-crease, however, some tools are available for installing mesh tapes the crimp and press the tape in the corner while installing. Although paper tape can be installed on paperless mold resistant drywall, mesh tape is recommended because it is impervious to mold. Mesh tape should be coated with a layer of compounds available, but, can be classified into two type, pre-mixed compound and setting compound.
Figure 11-68 Fiberglass mesh tape. http://www.fiberglass-tape.org/fiberglass/fiberglass drywall-joint-tape.html: Labeled for non-commercial use with modifications.
Pre-Mixed Joint Compound
Pre-mixed joint compound is most often supplied in standard 4.5 gallon buckets, or 3.5 gallon plastic lined boxes and is ready to use from the bucket or box. At times, however, it may be desirable to thin with a small amount of water depending on the intended usage.
Several different formulations of pre-mixed joint compound are available including “all-purpose”, lightweight “all-purpose”, and setting compound first, after which normal joint compound can be used.
Figure 11-69 Installing paper drywall tape.
CC-BY-Forest Service Northern Region:
Drywall Joint Compound
Drywall joint compound is also called drywall mud, drywall compound, or mud. Several different type of drywall joint “topping” compound. The most common type is “all-purpose” and, as the name implies, can be used for the majority of joint taping procedures. It has more adhesive in the mixture than some other types which makes it desirable for operations like embedding joint tape. It is also good to use for filling corner bead. It may be used for the finish coat, or substituted with topping compound which has less glue and is easier to sand, although some professionals believe that the harder “all-purpose” compound provides a harder and more durable surface, in spite of the extra work.
Light-weight all-purpose joint compound is lighter in weight than traditional all-purpose joint compound. It can be used for all taping operations. It is easier to sand than standard all-purpose joint compound.
Topping joint compound, it used for the last and final coat. It is a little smoother and easier to apply than all-purpose and is easier to sand for the final coat. It has less glue so it is softer and not appropriate for taping operations such as bedding joint tape. It is typically whiter in color and dries lighter than all-purpose joint compound so that the two types can be distinguished from each other in use.
Figure 11-70 Buckets of all-purpose drywall joint compound.
Setting Type Joint Compound
Setting type joint compound is sold as a dry powder that is mixed with water into a smooth paste like consistency. Mixing the com pound with water activates a chemical process the begins the hardening process. The manufacture can mix different quantities of hardener into the powder to accelerate or slow down the setting process. Setting mud is commonly sold in formulation that have a setting time of five, twenty, forty-five, sixty, and ninety minutes. This is the time it takes the compound to harden, but, additional time will be needed for it to dry completely.
Setting compound dries harder and stronger than pre-mixed drywall compound. It is a good choice for bedding the drywall tape, and is the recommended choice when using mesh tape. It is also commonly used for the first coats filling drywall trim such as corner bead all it allows multiple coat to be applied on the same day, and does not shrink like regular joint compound.
Setting mud is usually not used for the finish taping coat because it is harder and more difficult to sand than regular mud. It is available in both regular and lightweight mixes. The regular mix is harder and stronger than the lightweight version, but is more difficult to use.
Figure 11-71 lightweight setting type joint compound.
https://www.google.com/search?q=setting+type+joint+compound&site=imghp&tbs=sur:fm&tbm=is ch&source=lnt&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi_kKTrxoTcAhU6CDQIHSeSBNAQpwUIIA&biw=1920&b ih=947&dpr=1#imgrc=cqMunTIpf9QQwM: Labeled for reuse with modifications.
All About Window Trim
There are number of potential approaches for finishing the interior of windows. The construction and materials of the particular window unit can in part dictate the interior trim method. Other choices are based on financial, style, or esthetic considerations. As was previously discussed in Chapter 10, contemporary window units can be manufactured from wood, vinyl, fiberglass, composite, aluminum, or combination of these materials. The construction materials of the window frame can have some application of the in the choice window trim material such as the windows shown in Figure 11-71 which have a stained hardwood frame with matching stained hardwood interior trim.
Figure 11-72 Windows with stained hardwood frames and matching stained hardwood interior trim.
CC-BY-The Finishing Company: https://www.flickr.com/photos/crown_molding/5460596102
Another important factor in the application of window trim is the design of the window frame in relation to the interior face of the wall. Some windows are manufactured with a window frame that is flush to the interior face of the drywall, or are supplied with flush jamb extensions by the manufacturer, others are manufactured with window frames that are recessed into the window opening and required additional material to finish the window returns.
Windows with Flush Fames
Figure 11-72 shows an example of a window frame that has been manufactured to be flush with the interior face of the wall. These are often premium window types and the interior trim is an essential element in style and look of the finish installation.
Figure 11-73 Window unit manufactured with frame flush to interior wall surface.
These windows types typically require interior trim to be installed on all four side of the window frame. The style of the window trim can have many variations such as, picture frame casing, or traditional window casing, sill, and apron. In addition, other trim pieces can be installed to achieve a specific style or design condi tion.
Picture Framed Cased Windows
The most basic style of interior trim can be classified as picture frame style. With this style of trim casing is installed on the face of the four sides of the window frame. Figure 11-73 shows and example of picture framed window casing.
Figure 11-74 Picture frame cased window.
The length of each piece of trim is determined by the width and height of the window plus two times the casing width. For example, if the window is and forty-eight inches tall and forty-eight inches wide, and the casing is three and one quarter of an inch wide, the length of casing for each window side would be:
������������ �������� �������� ������������: ���� ����. +�� × ����������. = ������������. The total window trim length would equal:
���������� ������������ �������� ������������: ������������.× �� = ������ ����. Traditional Casing, Sill, and Apron
The most common traditional method of casing windows is composed of five trim pieces, one head casing, two side casings, one window sill (sometimes called the stool), and one apron molding. Figure 11-74 shows an example of window cased using a five-piece traditional casing.
Figure 11-75 Traditional five-piece casing set.
Estimating the five-piece casing set would include estimating four pieces of casing the same as for a picture frame window. In addition, the window sill would be as wide as twice the casing thickness and two inched longer than the head casing length. The sill can be made out of a three quarter inch thick piece, or it could be thicker such as one inch thick. If the window in this example were forty-eight inches wide by forty-eight inches tall the window trim estimate would be:
������������ ������������: �� ������. �� ����������. × ������������.
������������ ��������: ��������. �� �� ����. × ������������.
Other Window Casing Styles
Many other casing styles are possible that use other trim pieces, in cluding back bands, fillets, frieze boards, cap trim, and crown. Back Band Trim
Figure 11-75 shows and example of a style window using 5/8-inch thick, ¾ inch wide flat casing and ¾ inch thick, 1-1/4-inch-deep back bands.
Figure 11-76 Window casing style with flat casing and back band trim.
If the window in this example were forty-eight inches wide and forty-eight inches tall the casing would equal:
������������ ������������: �� ������. �� ����������. × ������������.
The back bands would be longer than the casing as they would also have to include the thickness of the back bands on each side: �������� ����������: ������������. +�� ×��������. = ���� ����.
Total back band length would include the length of the back bands for the four window sides, plus a small amount for the back bands on the right and left side of the window apron:
�������� �������� ����������: �� ������.× ���� ����. +�� ������.× ����������. = ��������������. Fillet, Frieze Boards and Crown Trim
Figure 11-76 shows an example of window trim that includes fillet trim, a frieze board, and crown trim.
Figure 11-77 Window casing style with fillet, frieze board, and crown molding trim.
Estimating this type of trim would include estimating three casing sides, one window sill, one fillet trim, one frieze board trim, and one crown molding trim using methods similar to estimating other window trim styles discusses.
Windows with Inset Frames
The desire to make more buildings more energy efficient has led to an increase in the thickness of the walls of typical residential construction and most exterior wall framing is two by six construction instead of two by four construction. Many window units are manufactured at widths that are shallower than the depth of the wall they are installed in. With this type of window additional material will need to be installed at the site to finish the jamb returns. One option is to install drywall jamb returns on three or four side of the window as was shown previously in Figures 11-59 to 11-61. Another option is to install site fabricated window jamb and sill extensions.
Figure 11-78 Window manufactured with frame insert from the face of the wall.
The cutaway window view shown in Figure 11-73 shows a window manufactured so that the frame of the window sets back from the face of the wall requiring additional site applied jamb material. Any of the window casing styles previously discussed can be used to trim windows with inset frame, however, the estimate will require the addition of jamb extension material. In addition, other window trim options are available such as using drywall returns for the head and sides of the window opening and installing only window sill and apron trim.
Drywall Corner Bead and Wood Sill and Apron
Figure 11-78 shows and example of a window with drywall corner bead installed on both side and the top of the jamb returns. The bottom of the window has a wood sill and apron molding installed. The wood sill material will need to be wider to accommodate the deep window depth of the inset window installation. The two by six exterior wall framing will require a sill material that is at least five and a half inches wide and three to four inches longer than the width of the window opening. The apron molding will need to be one or two inches longer than the width of the window opening. Using the example of a window that is forty-eight inches wide and forty-eight inches tall the following material will need to be purchased:
������������ ��������: ��������. ×��������. × ����������. × ���� ����. ������������ ����������: �� ������. × ����������. × ���� ����.
Figure 11-79 Inset window with drywall corner bead and wood sill and apron molding.
Figure 11-79 shows a photograph of a wood sill and apron molding with drywall corners on the sides and top.
Figure 11-80 Photograph of and inset window with a wood sill and apron molding.
Picture Frame Molding
Picture frame molding are also another possible option for insert windows. The casing would be calculated in the same way as with a flush frame window. In addition, jamb material will be required on all for side of the window opening. Figure 11-80 shows and example of an inset widow with picture frame molding around four sides.
Figure 11-81 Inset Window with picture frame molding on four sides.
Traditional five-piece window trim. Windows with inset frames can also be trimmed with the traditional sill, apron, side and head casing profiles. The estimates for the casing pieces would be the same as for a flush frame window, however, both side and head jam material will need to be purchased. In addition, the sill will need to be wider in relation to the side and head jamb widths. Figure 11081 shows and example of a traditional five-piece casing installation on an inset window.
Figure 11-82 Inset window installation with traditional five piece casing style.
The depth of the extension jambs and the window sill is dependent upon the installation and the thickness of the wall it is installed in. For example, Figure 11-82 shows jamb extension on a window installed in a basement. The extra wide jamb extensions are built using a frame and panel construction. The wide window sill is part of the wainscot top rail. Figure 11-83 shows a window jamb and sill installed in a typical two by six stud wall. The estimator will need to be able to determine the width of the wall assembly and the window frame inset distance.
Figure 11-83 Wide basement window well jambs and sill.
Figure 11-84 Inset window sill and jamb on typical two by six exterior wall.
Figure 11-85 Window schedule.
Window Trim Material Estimating (Detailed)
The window trim materials for a project can be determined from the plans and specifications for the project. For example, Figure 11-84 shows the window schedule which identifies which windows on the project will have trim installed and the type of trim that will be in stalled. Some windows such as those installed in the unfinished basement and garage will not have trim installed.
Figure 11-85 shows a window detail section from the project with the applicable window trim highlighted. The section detail shows that the windows are trimmed in a traditional sill, casing, and apron style. The window sill and returns are completed using three quarter inch thick MDF material and the top, side, and apron moldings are 2-1/4” finger jointer pine casing.
Window Trim Material Header
Excel Figure 11-9 Shows an example of the header section of the window trim materials subsection. The windows in the project are brought forward from the basic takeoff’s The number of windows, window width and height are also listed. The header allows for a manual input of the number of windows for each style that will have trim. This is to account for windows such as those in the garage which do not have trim installed.
Figure 11-86 Window trim section detail.
Excel Figure 11-9 Blank window material header section.
Manual inputs are also required at the bottom of the horizontal width and vertical height column.
Number of Casing Sides
The first input required is the number of casing sides. One of three inputs are needed. A zero, a one, or a two. The number represent the number of pieces of casing that will be installed along the horizontal direction on the window on the top or the bottom. For example, the window with only a sill and apron casing shown in Figure 11-78 has only one horizontal apron casing and a one would be input into the cell. The windows shown in Figures 11-80 and 11-81 have casing along both the top and bottom sides of the window and a two would be input into the cell.
The cell at the bottom of the vertical height column allows for input of the number of casing pieces along the vertical direction of the window casing. The window with only a sill and apron casing shown in Figure 11-78 would have a zero input as there are no casing sides on this window. The windows shown in Figures 11-80 and 11-81 have casing on both sides and a two would be input.
The cells that correspond to the jamb extensions input allows for a zero, one, or two to calculate the number of pieces of jamb extension material that will need to be purchased. The cells at the bottom of
the horizontal width column records jamb extensions that are required along the top and bottom of the window in the horizontal direction. This input does not include window sills that are installed at the base of the window in the traditional sill and apron style window trim. For example, the window shown in Figure 11-78would have a zero input as there is no jamb extension along the top side, and the window sill on the bottom would be counted in the window sill column below. The window shown in Figure 11-80
would have a two input into the cell as this picture frame window has a jamb extension on both the top and the bottom. The window shown in Figure 11-81 would have a one input as there is a jamb extension along the top and a sill is installed along the bottom, which will be accounted for in the window sill cell below.
The window sill input is only below the horizontal width column because the window sill is installed only along the bottom horizontal side of the window. This includes only traditional apron, casing style window trim such as installed on the windows in Figure 11-78 and 11-81. To estimate windows of this type, a one would be input in this cell. The picture framed casing style in Figure 11-80 would be counted as two jamb extensions in the cell above and a zero would be input into the cell.
The width of the window casing used in the project would be input into the casing width cell. Double the casing width would be added to the length of each casing piece to account for the extra amount needed to cut the miters in the corners, or the miter returns on the apron casing.
Completing the Window Trim Materials Subsection Excel Figure 11-10 shows the window trim materials header section filled out based upon the information shown in the window schedule in Figure 11-84 and the window detail section in Figure 11-85.
Excel Figure 11-10 Completed window trim header.
The correct jamb extension, window sill, and window casing mate rials determined from the window schedule and detail section is entered into the spreadsheet using the materials userform. The quantities are set up to be automatically calculated from the information in the header section. Figure 11-86 shows the completed window materials subsection. Two bundles of shims are manually input into the appropriate cells.
Excel Figure 11-11 Completed window trim materials.
All About Interior Door Materials
Estimating interior door finish includes estimating the interior passage doors, closest doors, exterior and interior door trim and moldings, and door hardware.
Types of Interior Doors
Interior Passage Doors
Interior passage doors are available in a wide number of materials and styles. Materials for interior doors include solid wood frame and panel doors, flat panel solid and hollow core, and composite wood doors. In addition, some interior doors can have glass panels.
Solid Wood Frame and Panel Doors
Solid wood frame ad panel doors are frequently used in high end construction or for traditional style interior finishes. They are available in a wide range of wood species and door styles such as is shown in Figures 11-86 and 11-87.
Figure 11-87 Four wood panel door styles.
Figure 11-88 Wood panel door styles.
Interior solid frame and panel doors are constructed using the same methods as exterior solid wood frame and panel doors as previously discussed with exterior doors in Chapter 10. Figure 11-88 shows an explode view of typical construction of an interior frame and panel door.
Figure 11-89 Exploded frame and panel door.
Molded Fiberboard Doors
Molded composite doors are a common modern alternative to solid wood frame and panel doors. Composite doors are constructed by bonding molded wood fiber face panels to an interior frame of wood, wood fiber, or other material. They can be purchased in either a hollow core or molded solid core construction. They are most often manufactured pre-primed and ready for a coat of finished paint of the desired color. They are manufactured in a wide range of sizes and styles, many that mimic traditional frame and panel construction.
Figure 11-90 Molded composite door styles.
Figure 11-90 shows an example of a cutaway view of a molded fiberboard door. Molded fiberboard skins are bonded to a core fame made from Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) or solid wood. The frame serves as a base for hollow core doors. The core can also be filled with solid wood or other material to make a solid core door for increased sound transmission and fire resistance.
Figure 11-91 Cutaway view of a hollow core molded fiberboard interior door.
Flat Panel Interior Doors
Flat panel interior doors are constructed in a fashion similar to molded fiberboard interior doors. They can be either hollow core or solid core interiors. The skins on the doors can be either a veneer plywood material, or fiberboard material. Often hardwood veneers are used for making these type of doors.
Figure 11-92 Flat panel hardwood veneered doors.
Hollow core flat panel doors often have an outside frame constructed of either solid wood or MDF and a center core of honeycomb material as is shown in Figure 11-92.
Figure 11-93 Cutaway view of hollow core flat panel door.
Exterior and interior doors for residential construction are made in a variety of standard widths, heights, and thicknesses. Standard Door Widths.
The vast majority of doors used in both residential and commercial construction are manufactured in standard widths ranging from two feet to three feet wide. Doors can be specified using either an inch measurement or a feet measurement. Standard doors widths include the following:
1 ft. – 0 in. or 12 in.
1 ft. – 2 in. or 14 in.
1 ft. – 3 in. or 15 in.
1 ft. – 4 in. or 16 in.
1 ft. – 6 in. or 18 in.
1 ft. – 8 in. or 20 in.
1 ft. – 10 in. or 22 in.
2 ft. - 0 in. or 24 in.
2 ft. – 2 in. 0r 26 in.
2 ft. – 4 in. or 28 in.
2 ft. – 6 in. or 30 in.
2 ft. – 8 in. or 32 in.
2 ft. – 10 in. or 34 in.
3 ft. – 0 in. or 36 in.
The doors shown in bold are the most often stocked sizes with the other doors usually available through special order. Other widths are sometimes specified when wider doors are needed, such as in a hos pital situation, but, most residential doors installed use standard widths. Doors two-feet-six inches or wider are usually used for entrance doors to rooms such as living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens and bathrooms. Occasionally, bathrooms, or other utility rooms use the narrower size down to two-feet-four-inch. The smaller sizes are used for closets or in tandem with multiple doors such as bifold doors. Doors to rooms that need to meet ADA requirements are specified as three feet wide. In addition, exterior doors are usually also three feet wide, but, occasionally, doors thirty-two inches wide are installed. The International Residential Code requires are least one three-foot-wide exterior door to a residence.
Standard Door Heights
The most common standard doors heights used are six feet eight inches tall, seven feet tall, and eight feet tall. Doors used in commercial construction are typically seven feet tall, while doors used in residential construction are typically six-feet-eight-inches
tall, although, seven-foot-tall doors are occasionally used in residential construction, particularly, in high end residential construction. Doors heights can also be specified using inches:
6 ft. – 8 in. or 80 in.
7 ft. – 0 in. or 84 in.
8 ft. – 0 in. or 96 in.
Occasionally, other door heights are used including six-feet- ten inches tall. High end residential construction also occasionally uses taller doors, particularly, for architectural styled entranced doors. Standard Door Thicknesses
Two standard door thickness are commonly used in construction. Residential interior doors are commonly one-and-three-eights-inch thick and exterior doors are one-and-three-quarters-inch thick. Commercial doors, both interior and exterior are most often one and-three-quarters-inch thick. Closet bifold doors are occasionally thinner at one-and-one-eighth-inch thick. Occasionally, architecturally styled entrance doors are also thicker such as two and-one-quarter-inch thick. The thickness would be listed as:
Pre-Hung Doors and Slab Doors
Most doors can be purchased as either a pre-hung door which includes the door slab and other trim and hardware, or as the door slab only with the additional items purchased separately as needed. It is important for the construction estimator to understand all of the elements and circumstances for door installation in order to prepare accurate construction door estimates. There are situations which may require the estimator to price only pre-hung doors, only slab doors, or both door types on a single project.
Most residential passage doors are delivered to the job site pre-hung upon the door jambs. This means that the door is supplied with the hinges installed and the door hanging on its own frame, ready to be placed into the prepared door opening. This significantly reduces the time and cost required to installed doors on the jobsite. Most building materials suppliers have facilities to provide pre-hung doors to meet their client’s needs. Different materials and methods are commonly used for pre-hung exterior and interior doors.
Pre-hung Exterior Doors
Residential exterior doors are typically thicker, stronger, and heavier than the interior doors. The minimum thickness is usually one and three quarters of an inch and the minimum height is six feet eight. In addition, pre-hung exterior doors are installed on rabbeted exterior jambs and often have a threshold and weather stripping preinstalled. Figure 11-93 shows a cutaway view of a typical exterior door installation.
Figure 11-94 Pre-hung exterior door.
The pre-installed threshold and weather stripping is a distinct advantage with pre-hung exterior doors because if they are installed properly, they are weather-tight off of the shelf and don’t require the installation of the threshold on the site, or the weather stripping which can be time consuming and difficult.
Pre-hung exterior doors often also come with the exterior brick molding trim already installed. If this is the case, the only additional trim needed for door installation is the interior casing trim. If the door does not come with the exterior brick molding supplied, exterior brick molding will need to be also purchased to complete the installation. The construction estimator will need to determine what specific elements are supplied with the pre-hung exterior door. Figure 11-94 shows a picture of exterior doors and windows delivered to the job site ready for installation. These doors have the brick molding trim, threshold, and weather stripping already installed. In addition, the lockset and deadbolt installation holes have been pre-drilled. The only trim item needed to finish these doors will be the interior casing trim.
Figure 11-95 Pre-hung exterior doors delivered to the job site ready for installation.
Pre-Hung Interior Doors
Interior doors are commonly installed on jambs that are made from nominal one-inch-thick material and are not rabbeted like exterior door jambs. Instead separate door stop molding trim is installed. The jambs are supplied in different widths to account for installation of walls of different thicknesses. For example, the jambs on doors mounted on interior two by four partition walls are typically 4-9/16- inch-wide to account for 3-1/2-inch stud width and one half in drywall on each side of the wall. An additional one sixteenth of an inch is added to the width to account for variation of the wall. Doors mounted on two by six walls, and walls with 5/8-inch-thick drywall will have door jambs that are wider. Figure 11-96 shows a cutaway view of an interior pre-hung door.
Figure 11-96 Cut-away view of interior pre-hung door.
Figure 11-97 shows pre-hung molded fiberboard interior doors delivered to the job site pre-hung ready to install. These pre-hung doors are supplied with the molded fiberboard door slab, the 4-9/16-inch-wide door jambs, the door stop molding trim, and three pair of hinges. The doors have also been predrilled for the lockset installation. The only trim items needed to complete the installation of these doors are casing trim on both the interior and exterior side of the door.
Figure 11-97 Interior pre-hung molded fiberboard interior doors delivered to the job site ready to install.
In both commercial and residential construction pre-hung exterior and interior doors are commonly used whenever possible. There are circumstances, however, when pre-hung doors cannot be used and door slabs will need to be purchased and installed on site. Two examples of a situations where pre-hung doors cannot be used are metal door jambs in masonry construction and some closet and other door installations.
Hollow Metal Door Jambs
Figure 11-95 shows an example of a metal door jamb that was installed at the same time that the masonry block wall was laid. A prefabricated metal door may be used. If a wood or composite door in needed, a slab door will need to be purchased and hinged and fit to the jambs on the job site. The metal door jamb acts as the casing and stop trim and no other door trim is needed.
Figure 11-98 Metal door jambs installed in a masonry block wall. The door will need to be hinged and fit at a later time.
Closet and Pocket Door Installation
Closet door installations include single hinged doors, double hinged doors, single and double bifold doors, and bypass doors. In addition, pocket doors and double pocket doors can be used for both closest and entry door installations.
Hinged and Double Hinged Doors
Both single and double hinged doors can be used for closet doors and are typically provided to the job pre-hung the same as for passage doors. The installation of single hinged closet doors is essentially the same as for single hinged pre-hung passage doors. The only additional trim items needed as the interior and exterior casing trim.
Double hinged closet doors are also usually provided to the job site pre-hung on the jambs. The installation is also
similar to single prehung doors and the only additional trim items needed are interior and exterior and casing
trim. There is usually some difference in the hardware for double hinged closet doors which will be discussed
later in the chapter.
Figure 11-99 shows an example of a double hinged closet door installation.
Figure 11-99 Double hinged closet door.
Single and Double Bifold Doors
Single and double bifold doors are a popular option for installing closets doors. A Single bifold door consists of two door slabs that are hinged together in the center between the door slabs. The door is mounted by installing a pivot in the top and the bottom of the doors. The door is opened by pulling on a knob in the center of the two doors and the doors rotate on the pivot folding at the hinge in the middle. Figure 11-99 shows a single bifold installed.
Figure 11-100 Single bifold closet door.
CC-BY-Lee Cannon-SA. https://www.flickr.com/photos/leecannon/10181242014
Double bifold doors are used in wider door opening and have four doors slabs hinged as two single bifold doors. Figure 11-100 shows an example of two closet openings each with double bifold doors, one open and one closed.
Figure 11-101 Double bifold closet doors.
CC-BY-Elizabeth Cooper: https://www.flickr.com/photos/22201094@N08/3528956587
Estimating both single and double bifold doors require the construction estimator to understand the installation and trim methods for closet doors. Bifold doors are usually supplied to the job site with the hinges installed on the doors, however, they are not considered pre-hung doors because the doors themselves are not installed on door jambs prior to the delivery at the job site.
The items included when purchasing a bifold doors typically includes the hinged door panels, either one or two pairs depending upon if it is a single or double bifold, the bifold door tract, and installation hardware. Figure 11-101 shows an example of a bifold door track. The length of the track is size to correspond to the width of the bifold doors. The track will also have one or two pivot mounting brackets installed depending upon if it a single or double bifold door.
Figure 11-102 Bifold door track.
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Also included with the door is door mounting hardware are one or two floor mounting brackets, One or two pairs of top and bottom pivots, one or two track rollers, one spring bracket, and mounting screws. Figure 11-102 shows an example of bifold hardware for a single bifold door. The hinges and screws would be preinstalled in the bifold door slabs.
Figure 11-103 Hinges and mounting hardware for a single bifold door. The hinges would be preinstalled on the bifold doors.
Figure 11-102 shows an exploded view of a single bifold door including the track and hardware installation.
Figure 11-104 Exploded view of installation of bifold door hardware.
Estimating the trim and casing for bifold doors requires the con struction estimator to understand possible methods for trimming bifold doors. Possible methods include drywall jambs and corner bead; drywall jambs, corner bead, and wood stop molding trim; wood jambs and casing trim; wood jambs, stop molding trim, and casing trim; or wood half jambs and casing trim.
Drywall Jamb and Corner Bead
Bifold doors can be installed on openings that have been finished with drywall and drywall corner trim such as was shown in Figure 11-104. Gypsum wall board is installed on both the inside and outside of the wall. In addition, the jambs return have wallboard also installed. The corners are finished with drywall corner bead. No wood trim is used in this type of installation.
Figure 11-105 Cutaway view of bifold door installed on drywall jambs and corner bead.
Estimating material for this type of installation on a 3’-0” x 6’-8” bifold door would include the following:
Drywall Corner Bead: 4 pcs. x 6 ft. – 8 in.
Drywall Corner Bead: 2 pcs. x 3 ft. – 0 in.
Drywall Jamb, Corner Bead, and Wood Stop Molding Trim Bifold doors typically require a minimum of one quarter inch clearance on each side between the door and jamb openings. The installation works fine, but there is a gap between the door and jambs which can be unsightly. One method of coving the gap is to install some type of wood stop trim to cover the gap. Trim that can be used include quarter round, cove molding, and door stop trim. Figure 11- 105 shows an example of a bifold door installed on drywall jambs with a wood cove molding installed as a stop molding. Figure 11-99 also shows an example of this type of installation.
Figure 11-106 Cutaway view of bifold door installed on drywall jambs and corner bead with wood cove stop molding.
Estimating material for this type of installation on a 3’-0” x 6’-8” bifold door would include the following:
Drywall Corner Bead: 4 pcs. x 6 ft. – 8 in.
Drywall Corner Bead: 2 pcs. x 3 ft. – 0 in.
Wood Stop Trim: 2 pcs. 1in. x 2 in. x 82 in.
Wood Stop Trim: 1 pcs. 1 in. x 2 in. x 36 in.
Closet bifold doors can also be installed in openings that have drywall on each side of the wall, but the jamb returns are left with the framing exposed and the corners do not have drywall corner bead installed on the corners such as is shown in Figure 11-106. Figure 11-107 Door opening left rough without any drywall returns installed.
Wood jambs and trim are often installed to finish the openings that are left rough and bifold doors are installed in the opening. The opening can have wood jamb and trim, or wood jambs, trim, and stop molding.
Wood Jambs and Trim
Bifold door installed on wood jamb and trim have wood jambs installed on each side and the top of the opening. Wood casing is also installed around the opening on both sides and top of the door. The casings are installed on both the inside or outside of the door opening as is shown in Figure 11-107.
Figure 11-108 Bifold doors installed in opening with wood jambs and casing trim, but not door stop trim.
Estimating material for this type of installation on a 3’-0” x 6’-8” bifold door would include the following:
Wood Jambs: 2 pcs. 3/4in. x 4-9/16” in. x 82 in.
Wood Jambs: 1 pcs. 3/4in. x 4-9/16” in. x 36 in.
Wood Casing Trim: 4 pcs. 2-1/4 in. x 84 in.
Wood Casing Trim: 2 pcs. 2-1/4 in x 42 in.
Doors installed on these type of openings have a finished trim look, but still have a gap along the edges of the door where it is installed against the side jambs such as is shown in Figure 11-108.
Figure 11-109 Double bifold doors with jamb and trim but no stop molding.
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Wood Jambs, Trim, and Stop Molding
Stop molding trim can also be installed on bifold doors with wood jambs and casing trim to give the installation a more finished look. This is done by installing stop molding trim around both sides and the top of the door opening as is shown in Figure 11-109.
Figure 11-110 Bifold door installed on wood jambs with casing and door stop trim.
Figure 11-110 also shows a picture of this type of bifold closet door installation. Estimating material for this type of installation on a 3’- 0” x 6’-8” bifold door would include the following:
Wood Jambs: 2 pcs. 3/4in. x 4-9/16” in. x 82 in.
Wood Jambs: 1 pcs. 3/4in. x 4-9/16” in. x 36 in.
Wood Casing Trim: 4 pcs. 2-1/4 in. x 84 in.
Wood Casing Trim: 2 pcs. 2-1/4 in x 42 in.
Wood Stop Trim: 2 pcs. 1in. x 2 in. x 82 in.
Wood Stop Trim: 1 pcs. 1 in. x 2 in. x 36 in.
Wood Half Jambs and Casing Trim
The method of trimming bifold door with wood half jambs and casing trim is a hybrid of both drywall jamb and corner bead and wood jamb and trim methods of trimming bifold doors. Gypsum wallboard is installed on the walls on both the inside and outside of the door and also installed on the jamb returns. Drywall corner bead trim is installed on the inside corner of the door and the outside corner is covered with one by two jamb material and wood casing trim. Figure 11-111 shows and example of a bifold door trimmed using this method.
Figure 11-112 Wood half-jamb and casing trim.
The method of trimming bifold doors give the look of fully cased and trimmed doors with a considerable savings in cost. Estimating material for this type of installation on a 3’-0” x 6’-8” bifold door would include the following:
Drywall Corner Bead: 2 pcs. x 6 ft. – 8 in.
Drywall Corner Bead: 1 pcs. x 3 ft. – 0 in.
Wood Half Jambs: 2 pcs. 1in. x 2 in. x 82 in.
Wood Half Jambs: 1 pcs. 1 in. x 2 in. x 36 in.
Wood Casing Trim: 2 pcs. 2-1/4 in. x 84 in.
Wood Casing Trim: 1 pcs. 2-1/4 in x 42 in.
Bypass Closet Doors
Bypass closet doors operate with two or more doors installed in a single opening. The doors are installed on a sliding track and are opened by sliding one door behind the other door. This type of door installation is not as common as other types of installations because only one door can be opened at a time which make access to the closet less efficient. Still, this method has the advantage of allowing closet access in situation where opening a swinging door or bifold door is difficult because of lack of operating space.
Bypass doors are purchased as separate door slabs and a hardware kit that consists of a door track, door rollers, and a floor mounted bracket to keep the doors apart. In addition, flush mounted door pulls can also be included (Figure 11-112).
Figure 11-113 Bypass closet door hardware kit.
Figure 11-112 shows an example of a double bypass door installa tion.
Figure 11-114 Double bypass door installation.
In addition to purchasing the door slabs and track hardware package, the estimator will need to account for the door trim. Bypass doors can be trimmed using any of the previously described methods including drywall jamb and corner bead; drywall jamb, corner bead, and wood stop molding trim; wood jambs and trim; wood jambs, trim, and stop molding; and wood half jambs and casing trim. Estimating trim materials would be the same as for other types of doors installations.
Pocket doors are similar to sliding doors in that they operate by moving on a special top mounted track, however, the doors disappear into a crevice, or pocket in the wall. They are useful in installations where space is tight, or for convenience in sealing off a normally open space for to allow for a more private setting. Pocket doors can include both single and double pocket doors.
Pocket doors are usually purchased as separate door slabs and a pocket kit that consists of a door track, door rollers, and a frame for creating the door pocket in the wall framing. The door frames are installed during the framing phase of construction. Figure 11-114 shows an example of a pocket door track installed in a framed wall. Figure 11-115 shows a close-up of a pocket door track and rollers.
Figure 11-115 Pocket door track and frame installed in framed door opening.
Pocket doors are most often trimmed with wood jambs and casing. The strike side of the jamb uses a standard ¾” inch by 4-9/16” door jamb and the pocket and top sides of the opening uses jamb material cut into narrow strips to finish each side of the pocket. Door casing is installed on the top of both sides of the opening. Figure 11-116 shows and example of the trim installation on a pocket door.
Locksets and other Door Hardware
In addition to the hinge and track hardware needed for the installation of doors, other hardware is also usually part of the standard installation requirements. The hardware can be as basic as a simple pull knob to open a closet bifold door, or a complex package of safety and security hardware. Common residential door hardware commonly includes lockset, deadbolts, door stop hardware, door closers, and other hardware.
Figure 11-117 Pocket door trim installation.
Figure 11-116 Close-up view of a pocket door track and rollers.
In addition to the requirement for a method to open and close a door, there is often a need to provide a method for a way to securing the door and preventing unwanted opening or access. Some doors need only a simple latch or catch to keep the door closed. Others have to provide for a significant level of security. Many styles and types of door hardware are available and door hardware style can also be an important element in an architectural style. Lockset can be classified by their locking or latching mechanism and by the method of installation.
Locking or Latching Mechanisms
Locking or latching mechanisms refer to the level of locking security that the door hardware provides. Types of locking or latching mechanisms include pull, or dummy knobs, passage latches, privacy locks, keyed locks, and deadbolts.
Pull or Dummy Knobs
Pull or dummy knobs are usually attached to only one side of the door and are used to operated doors that do not need to provide any level of security restriction. Pull knobs are usually smaller knob in the style that would be common on kitchen cabinets (Figure 11-117). These type of knobs are commonly used on bifold style doors. They are most often attached with one or two screws that are drilled through the door and threads into the knob such as the pull knobs shown in Figure 11-108.
Dummy knobs are full size knobs manufactured to look the same as standard operating door knobs, however, that are attached to just the face of the door and are used to operate the doors. These type of knobs also usually require the installation of a separate latching method to hold the closet doors closed. Figure 11-118 shows an example of double swinging closet doors with dummy knobs installed. In addition, small ball catches can be seen at the top of the doors to hold them closed.
Passage latches are operating door knobs that latch to keep the doors close, however they do not have a locking mechanism that can be secured to prevent access. These type of knobs are most commonly used on closet and storage room hinged doors. They a typically installed in the same manner as other locking type door knobs. Figure 11-119 shows a passage lockset installed on a closet door. It can be identified as a passage lockset by the absence of any keying or unlocking mechanism of the exterior of the door handle.
Figure 11-119 Dummy door knobs on closet doors
Figure 11-118 Cabinet style pull knobs can also be used on bifold type doors. By Tomwsulcer [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
Figure 11-120 Passage lockset installed on a closet door.
Privacy locks can be locked from the inside by a button or turn knob. They do not usually have a key function. They are used in situations such as bedroom or bathroom doors where it is desirable to be able to lock the door to provide needed privacy, but do not provide the same level of security as a keyed lock. Most privacy lock have an emergency release button that allows the lock to be unlocked from the outside by inserting a small pin in a hole in the lock handle so that the lock can be opened in an emergency situation such as when a small child locks themselves in a bathroom or bedroom doesn’t know how to get out. Figure 11-120 shows and example of a privacy lock which can be identified by the small pin hole on the locks exterior.
Figure 11-121 Privacy bedroom lock identified by the small emergency unlocking hole on the lockset exterior.
CC-BY-Jesus Rodriguez: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jmrodri/8056785820
Keyed locks are used to provide security and limit access to places. There are several types of keyed lockset function including, entry locksets, storeroom lockset, and classroom locksets. Entry lockset are the most common type used in residential situations. The locks require a key t operate from the exterior when the lock is locked, however the lock can be opened from the inside by pushing a small button or lever. They can also be locked from the inside using that same button or lever.
Storeroom locksets require a key to operate. There is no mechanism on the inside for locking the door and the door is always locked and requires a key to open it each time.
Classroom locksets require a key to lock or unlock the door. There is not button or knob on the lock on the inside than will allow it to be locked or unlocked. A key, however, can be used to unlock the door and leave it unlocked, or to unlock the door and leave it locked. Figure 11-121 shows an example of a keyed lockset.
Figure 11-122 Keyed lockset.
Deadbolts provide an added level of security over keyed other keyed locks which use spring activated catch to hold the door closed. Spring locking catches can often be jimmied by inserting a piece of ridged thin material between the lock and catch plate to withdraw the spring catch. Deadbolt require the key turn knob to operate. There are two basic types of deadbolts, a single cylinder deadbolt and a double cylinder deadbolt.
A single cylinder deadbolt operated from the outside of the lock using a key and has a turn knob on the inside to open the lock. Double cylinder deadbolts require a key to operate both the inside and outside of the deadbolt. Figure 11-122 shows and examples of both single and double cylinder deadbolts. Double cylinder
Figure 11-123 Single and double cylinder deadbolts. CC-BY-whykkk-SA: https://www.flickr.com/photos/whykkk/6939864444
Door Entry Handles
Entry doors are often considered an important architectural feature and often they have upscale doors locks and handles to emphasize the desired architectural style. Door entry handle are available in a wide range of styles and cost price points. Some can be a significant expense both for materials and installation labor. The estimator will need to accurately determine these cost (Figure 11-123.).
Lockset Installation Methods
deadbolts provide for more security and don’t allow the door to be opened from the inside without a key, but they do raise safety issues, particularly in the event of a fire when occupants can be trapped in cylindrical locks. The two lock types are not typically interchangeable and projects tend to utilize one method or the other. Locksets are typically manufactured to be installed using one of two methods. They can be mortise locks or bored
Figure 11-124 Door entry handles.
Mortise style locks require a pocket or mortise to be cut into the door edge for the lock installation. Most older style locks were manufactured to be mortise style and were the most common style of lockset installed before World War II. The large mortise required for the lock installation is time consuming and difficult to create, resulting in a higher installation cost.
They are also considered higher quality than cylindrical locks
Figure 11-126 Mortise style deadbolt lock.
Figure 11-125 Mortise style combination lock. CC-BY-whykkk-SA:
Bored Cylindrical Locks
Bored cylindrical locks were first patented in 1923 by Walter Schlage in 1923. They were designed to be a more cost effective and are usually significantly more expensive to purchase. They are still frequently used in high end residential construction.
Figure 11- 123 shows an example of mortise style lock that has both the latch and deadbolt combined in one lock.
Figure 11-124 shows an example of a mortise style deadbolt lock.
This lock style requires only two holes to be drilled in the door for installation. One large 2-1/8-inch diameter hole through the face of the door for the lock assembly and a smaller one-inch diameter hole in the edge of the door for the latch assembly. The distance the larger face hole is drilled from the edge of the door is known as the backset distance. Two common backset distances are 2-3/8-inches and 2-3/4-inches. Residential doors commonly used a 2-3/8-inch backset, and doors in commercial projects a 2-3/4-inch backset. Figure 11-125 shows an example of a typical bored cylindrical lock.
Figure 11-127 Bored cylindrical style lock.
Doors that require both a lockset and deadbolt require two sets of holes to be drilled for the installation of both locks. Pre-hung doors are typically supplied with the lockset holes pre-bored in the door as is shown in the pre-hung interior doors in Figure 11-96 or two holes in the exterior pre-hung doors such as is shown in Figure 11- 94. Figure 11-126 shows an example of both a cylindrical keyed lockset and deadbolt installation.
Figure 11-128 Separate keyed lockset and deadbolt installed in a door. CC-BY-whykkk-SA:https://www.flickr.com/photos/whykkk/6939864456
Door Stop Hardware
Swinging style doors often require some form of stop to keep the door from swinging back into the wall or other objects which can cause damage to both items. Door stop are available in a number of styles and installation types. This include wall mounted, floor mounted, baseboard mounted, and hinge mounted. Figure 11-127 shows examples of a wall, floor, and baseboard mounted door stop.
Figure 11-129 Floor, wall, and baseboard mounted door stops
CC-BY-r.nial bradshaw: https://www.flickr.com/photos/zionfiction/8207485896
Automatic door closers are not as common in a residential setting as they are in commercial installations, still, there are times when an automatic closing mechanism is needed. For example, some building code jurisdictions require any door installed in the common wall between the attached garage and the living space to be selfclosing. The self-closing requirement can be achieved using a number products including spring loaded hinges that close the door. Another option is to install a door closer. These are typically installed at the top of the door between the jamb and the door. These types of closers provide more control over the closing motion that spring loaded hinges. Door closers are manufactured in a wide variety of sizes, styles and installation methods. Figure 11-128 shows and example of a typical door closer.
Figure 11-130 Door self-closing mechanism.
Other Door Hardware
Other door hardware can consist of items such as kick plates, mail slots, peepholes, and door knockers as is shown in figure 11-130 Each of these items should be counted and added to the estimate.
Figure 11-131 Front door with entry handle and other hardware including kick plate, mail slot, door knocker and peephole.
Interior Door Trim Materials Estimating (Detailed)
The door trim materials for a project can often be determined from the plans and specifications for the project. For example, Figure 11- 131 shows the door schedule which identifies the doors on the project that will have trim installed, and the type of trim. Some doors, such as those installed in the unfinished basement and garage, will not have trim installed, or have trim installed on only one side such as an exterior garage door which would have trim on the outside of the door, but, may not have trim installed on the inside if the garage wall did not have drywall installed on it.
Interior Door Materials Header
The door description, mark, and perimeter are brought forward from the header section. Hovering over the Trim Style cells displays a comment that shows there are five different trim numbered styles possible.
0 = No Trim 3 = Outside Trim Only 1 = Inside & Outside Trim 4 = Trim & Jambs
2 = Inside Trim Only 5=Trim, Jamb, & Stop
Excel Figure 11-13 Header section of the interior door materials subsection.
Figure 11-132 Door Schedule showing door trim.
Each door will have a trim style applied to it. In order to apply the correct trim style to each door, it is essential that the estimator understand the difference between the trim materials that are supplied with the door and additional material that will need to be purchased for the project to complete the door installation.
The door schedule shows the trim material that each door will have, however, some of the trim material will be supplied when the prehung door is purchased. For example, the doors in the schedule numbered one through four are exterior pre-hung entry doors. It is expected that when these doors are purchased they will be supplied prehung on the appropriate exterior door jambs with the exterior brick molding trim pre-attached such as was shown in Figure 11-94.
The only additional trim that will need to be purchased is the interior trim which is identified in the schedule as Colonial Casing, 2-1/4” FJ Pine. In addition, door number four will be installed in the garage rear wall. This wall has no drywall attached to it, so no casing will be needed (Figure 11-132).
Figure 11-133 No interior casing will be installed on this exterior garage door.
Excel Figure 11-14 shows the exterior door portion of the header section completed. Doors 1,2, & 3 have the number two entered to represent that interior trim will need to be purchased for these doors. Door number 4 has the number zero entered to show that no additional trim will need to be purchased for this door. The totals for LF Ext Trim shows that 51.7 lineal feet of interior trim material will need to be purchased for the four exterior doors.
Excel Figure 11-14 Complete header section for exterior doors.
Excel Figure 11-15 shows the completed header section for the interior doors. Doors five through twelve are all per-hung interior swinging doors. Each of these doors will be supplied pre-hung on the appropriate jamb with door stop trim installed, so, the only additional trim that will need to be purchased will be interior and exterior trim. The number two is entered into the trim style in the header section and quantity of trim for the interior and exterior of the doors is calculated. Door number thirteen is a cased door opening. No door will need to be purchased, however, door jamb material and interior and exterior casing trim will need to be provided to complete the installation. Door stop is not traditionally installed on opening without a door, so no stop will need to be supplied Figure (11-134). A number 4 is entered into the trim style to calculated the quantity of jamb, interior, and exterior casing that will need to be bought. The width of the interior and exterior trim is also entered into the appropriate cells in the header section to add additional length to the purchased trim to allow for making the trim miter cuts. Excel Figure 11-15 shows the completed interior door header section and the total lineal feet of door trim that will be needed for this project.
Excel Figure 11-15 Completed door materials header section.
Completing the Interior Door Materials
The door and window database in the estimating template uses a number of abbreviations and it helps to understand what the abbreviations mean. For example, Excel Figure 11-16 shows a screenshot of the first few lines of the door and window database showing the available sizes of the “Bostonian” styles pre-hung doors.
Excel Figure 11-16 Bostonian pre-hung doors in the door and window database (Dr&WinDB).
The first four numbers in the description represent the size of the door in feet. For example, the first door is listed as 2068. This means the door is two feet wide and six feet eight inches tall. This same door could also be expressed in inches as 24 inches wide by 80 inches tall. The second is a description of the door style. “Bostonian” is a specific style of six panel molded composite door produced by the Jeld Wen corporation (Figure 11-133). The next group of letters and number “PH 4-1/2 FJJB identify the door as (PH) pre-hung on (4-1/2) four-and-a-half-inch wide door jambs (for installation in 2x4 interior walls), (FJJB) made from finger jointed solid lumber jamb material such as is shown in Figure 11-134
Figure 11-134 Bostonian style interior door.
Completing the Interior Doors Subsection
The exterior doors were purchased and installed during the exterior phase of construction and will not need to be estimated again. The interior doors will be put into the spreadsheet using the materials userform and the quantities manually input. Excel Figure 11-17 shows the completed interior door materials subsection of the estimating template.
Excel Figure 11-17 Completed interior doors subsection.
Completing the Exterior and Interior Door Trim Subsections The exterior and interior trim materials will also be input using the materials userform. The quantities of trim material are automatically calculated based upon information input into the header section (Excel Figure 11-18).
Excel Figure 11-18 Completed door trim subsections.
Completing the Interior Door Hardware Subsection Hardware will also need to be purchased for each door. The door hardware schedule also typically shows the hardware requirements for each door. Figure 11-135 shows an example of a door hardware schedule.
Figure 11-135 4-1/2” Cased door opening with finger-jointed door jamb material.
Figure 11-136 Door hardware schedule.
Information from the door hardware schedule is transferred to the estimating template. The materials are entered using the Material userform and the quantities are manually input. The shim shingles are calculated at one shingle per lineal foot of door perimeter. The perimeter of the doors is taken from the header section. The perimeter of the garage door is not included in the door count. The shims are listed as 24 hinges per bundle (Excel Figure 11-19).
Excel Figure 11-19 Interior door hardware subsection completed.