• ESS 349 Lab Manual
  • Terminology
  • Stretching
  • HOPS
  • SOAP Notes
  • Universal Precautions
  • Wound Care
  • Blisters
  • P.R.I.C.E.
  • Thermotherapy Notes
  • Cryotherapy Notes
  • Neutral Therapy Notes
  • Game Ready Chart
  • Bob-Dog
  • Modality Chart
  • Heat Modalities
  • Cold Modalities
  • Therapeutic Modalities
  • Preventative Ankle Taping
  • Phases of Rehabilitation
  • Rehab Tools
  • Hypervolt User Guide
  • Ankle HOPS Notes
  • Palpations
  • Special Tests
  • How to Use a Tape Shark
  • Arch Taping
  • Patellar Tendon Taping
  • Wraps
  • Palpations
  • Special Tests
  • Crutch Fitting
  • Palpations
  • Special Tests
  • Additional Tape Jobs
  • Concussion Education
  • Wiihab
  • Kinesio Tape
  • 3" Powerflex Ankle
  • HOPS Rubrics
  • Download
  • Translations
  • Modality Chart


    Physiological Effect




    Time intervals


    Electromagnetic waves create vibrations in the molecules of the muscle fibers to increase blood flow to the area and reduce pain

    Large soft tissue injuries such as:

    -muscle strains


    -muscle knots

    Positive fever test Impaired sensation Metal implants Pregnancy

    Cancer Pacemakers

    Wet or damp skin If athlete feels a burning or aching sensation stop


    Position diathermy head 1” over treatment area

    Ensure that the skin is dry around the treatment area.

    Place a towel over the area if desired to reduce intensity of treatment

    20 minutes

    Hot Packs

    Decreases joint stiffness, reduces pain, relieves muscle spasm, reduces edema, reduces swelling, increases blood flow.

    Joint stiffness Muscle spasms Chronic edema Chronic Swelling

    Positive fever test Impaired sensation Acute injuries

    Place hot pack in hydrocollator cover

    Apply pack to treatment area.

    To decrease intensity, layer towels between pack and skin.

    15 minutes

    Paraffin Bath

    Increases blood flow and cellular metabolism.

    Chronic inflammatory conditions Joint stiffness

    Positive fever test Impaired sensation Open wounds Infection

    Wash area thoroughly

    Dip 6-12 times waiting for the wax to dry between dips.

    Wrap wax covered area in a plastic bag and towel.

    15 minutes, or until wax cools


    Sound waves create vibrations in the molecules of muscle fibers to increase blood flow to the area and reduce pain

    Small soft tissue injuries such as:

    -muscle strains


    -muscle knots

    Acute injuries** Impaired sensation, Fractures Bony areas.

    If athlete feels a burning sensation stop treatment

    **Ultrasound can be used on acute injuries as long as the pulse output is used.

    Apply ultrasound gel generously to affected area.

    Move the ultrasound wand in slow circular motions over the area with a maximum diameter of 2 inches

    1 MHz- deep treatment area 2 MHz- moderate depth

    3 MHz- superficial treatment area

    5 minutes


    Encourages blood flow while stretching superficial tissues.

    Muscular tension,

    Poor circulation

    Acute soft tissue ruptures or tears Bruising

    Massages can be applied using Rock Sauce, the buffer, or other various massage tools.

    5-8 minutes


    Reestablishes neuromuscular function earlier and prevents additional swelling in the affected area


    Limited range of motion Muscle weakness

    Circulation disorders Impaired sensation Open wounds

    Submerse injured joint in ice water until numb.

    Perform exercises while the area is still numb (3 to 5 minutes) within limits of athlete’s pain.

    Re-immerse joint until numb again.

    Process can be repeated 3-4 times

    Submerge limb until numb (5-12 minutes)

    Game Ready

    Acts as an analgesic, blood vessel constriction to prevent additional swelling in the joint

    Acute injuries Pain Inflammation

    Circulation disorders Impaired sensation

    Do not apply before activity

    Fill Game Ready machine with an ice water mixture.

    If possible, cover treatment joint with plastic.

    Apply the compression sleeve to the joint.

    15 minutes

    Ice Cups

    Pushes fluids out of the injury, acts as an analgesic, constricts blood vessels.

    Pain Inflammation Edema in small muscular areas.

    Circulation disorders Impaired sensation

    Apply ice cup over the affected area with moderate pressure in small overlapping circles pushing any fluids towards the heart.

    5-7 minutes

    Ice Packs

    Acts as an analgesic, constricts blood vessels to prevent additional swelling from accumulating

    Pain Inflammation

    Circulation disorders Impaired sensation

    Avoid excessive exposure

    Fill plastic bag with ice

    Flatten the bag and suck the air out to allow the ice to conform to the body, tie bag closed.

    20 minutes of every hour for the first 72 hours

    Moist Ice Pack (Bob Dog)

    The moisture allows the cold to penetrate deeper and acts as an analgesic

    Pain Inflammation

    Impaired sensation Circulation disorders

    Avoid excess exposure

    Dampen a towel with water, place a thin line of ice, and wrap it like a burrito. Place additional towel under limb to catch dripping.

    15 minutes

    Electric Stimulation

    Acts as an analgesic by over stimulating the nerves in the area of application


    Impaired sensation Pacemakers

    Bony areas

    Apply electrodes around the center of the pain, connect the leads in an “X” pattern, red leads across from each other and black leads across from each other.

    15 minutes

    Light Therapy (Red & Infrared)

    Uses light to promote healing on a cellular level by increasing the ATP production in the mitochondria.

    Acute and chronic injuries to soft tissue, including the dermal layers of the skin.


    Light will not benefit fractures as it cannot penetrate the bone

    Apply the light therapy wand or paddles to the affected and surrounding areas.

    Cover paddles with a towel to prevent exposure to the naked eye.

    30 seconds per application for the wand. A preset time for the paddles, about 9 minutes

    30 seconds.

    Light Therapy (Blue)

    Acts as a bactericidal, viricidal, and fungicidal to disinfect open wounds.

    Acute lacerations Abrasions Punctures

    Skin infections.

    Medications that cause sensitivity to light

    Apply directly over affected area Cover open wounds with plastic wrap. Eye protection MUST be worn in addition to covering the pads with a towel. Follow with red light.

    10 minutes every other day.

    Game Ready
    Light Therapy
    IFC (Electric Stimulation)

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