Modality Chart


Physiological Effect




Time intervals


Electromagnetic waves create vibrations in the molecules of the muscle fibers to increase blood flow to the area and reduce pain

Large soft tissue injuries such as:

-muscle strains


-muscle knots

Positive fever test Impaired sensation Metal implants Pregnancy

Cancer Pacemakers

Wet or damp skin If athlete feels a burning or aching sensation stop


Position diathermy head 1” over treatment area

Ensure that the skin is dry around the treatment area.

Place a towel over the area if desired to reduce intensity of treatment

20 minutes

Hot Packs

Decreases joint stiffness, reduces pain, relieves muscle spasm, reduces edema, reduces swelling, increases blood flow.

Joint stiffness Muscle spasms Chronic edema Chronic Swelling

Positive fever test Impaired sensation Acute injuries

Place hot pack in hydrocollator cover

Apply pack to treatment area.

To decrease intensity, layer towels between pack and skin.

15 minutes

Paraffin Bath

Increases blood flow and cellular metabolism.

Chronic inflammatory conditions Joint stiffness

Positive fever test Impaired sensation Open wounds Infection

Wash area thoroughly

Dip 6-12 times waiting for the wax to dry between dips.

Wrap wax covered area in a plastic bag and towel.

15 minutes, or until wax cools


Sound waves create vibrations in the molecules of muscle fibers to increase blood flow to the area and reduce pain

Small soft tissue injuries such as:

-muscle strains


-muscle knots

Acute injuries** Impaired sensation, Fractures Bony areas.

If athlete feels a burning sensation stop treatment

**Ultrasound can be used on acute injuries as long as the pulse output is used.

Apply ultrasound gel generously to affected area.

Move the ultrasound wand in slow circular motions over the area with a maximum diameter of 2 inches

1 MHz- deep treatment area 2 MHz- moderate depth

3 MHz- superficial treatment area

5 minutes


Encourages blood flow while stretching superficial tissues.

Muscular tension,

Poor circulation

Acute soft tissue ruptures or tears Bruising

Massages can be applied using Rock Sauce, the buffer, or other various massage tools.

5-8 minutes


Reestablishes neuromuscular function earlier and prevents additional swelling in the affected area


Limited range of motion Muscle weakness

Circulation disorders Impaired sensation Open wounds

Submerse injured joint in ice water until numb.

Perform exercises while the area is still numb (3 to 5 minutes) within limits of athlete’s pain.

Re-immerse joint until numb again.

Process can be repeated 3-4 times

Submerge limb until numb (5-12 minutes)

Game Ready

Acts as an analgesic, blood vessel constriction to prevent additional swelling in the joint

Acute injuries Pain Inflammation

Circulation disorders Impaired sensation

Do not apply before activity

Fill Game Ready machine with an ice water mixture.

If possible, cover treatment joint with plastic.

Apply the compression sleeve to the joint.

15 minutes

Ice Cups

Pushes fluids out of the injury, acts as an analgesic, constricts blood vessels.

Pain Inflammation Edema in small muscular areas.

Circulation disorders Impaired sensation

Apply ice cup over the affected area with moderate pressure in small overlapping circles pushing any fluids towards the heart.

5-7 minutes

Ice Packs

Acts as an analgesic, constricts blood vessels to prevent additional swelling from accumulating

Pain Inflammation

Circulation disorders Impaired sensation

Avoid excessive exposure

Fill plastic bag with ice

Flatten the bag and suck the air out to allow the ice to conform to the body, tie bag closed.

20 minutes of every hour for the first 72 hours

Moist Ice Pack (Bob Dog)

The moisture allows the cold to penetrate deeper and acts as an analgesic

Pain Inflammation

Impaired sensation Circulation disorders

Avoid excess exposure

Dampen a towel with water, place a thin line of ice, and wrap it like a burrito. Place additional towel under limb to catch dripping.

15 minutes

Electric Stimulation

Acts as an analgesic by over stimulating the nerves in the area of application


Impaired sensation Pacemakers

Bony areas

Apply electrodes around the center of the pain, connect the leads in an “X” pattern, red leads across from each other and black leads across from each other.

15 minutes

Light Therapy (Red & Infrared)

Uses light to promote healing on a cellular level by increasing the ATP production in the mitochondria.

Acute and chronic injuries to soft tissue, including the dermal layers of the skin.


Light will not benefit fractures as it cannot penetrate the bone

Apply the light therapy wand or paddles to the affected and surrounding areas.

Cover paddles with a towel to prevent exposure to the naked eye.

30 seconds per application for the wand. A preset time for the paddles, about 9 minutes

30 seconds.

Light Therapy (Blue)

Acts as a bactericidal, viricidal, and fungicidal to disinfect open wounds.

Acute lacerations Abrasions Punctures

Skin infections.

Medications that cause sensitivity to light

Apply directly over affected area Cover open wounds with plastic wrap. Eye protection MUST be worn in addition to covering the pads with a towel. Follow with red light.

10 minutes every other day.

Game Ready
Light Therapy
IFC (Electric Stimulation)

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