Calcaneal Tendon – Locate the base of the gastrocnemius and run your fingers down the length of the tendon until you reach a bony perturbance called the calcaneus, or heel bone.
Calcaneus – Locate the most dorsal, distal portion of leg and palpate all the edges of this bone.
Plantar Fascia - Crossing the ball of the foot, draw an imaginary triangle extending down to the heel. Within this triangle explore the superficial layers of tissue along the sole of the foot. Passively flex and extend the toes, noting how this movement affects the tension of the plantar aponeurosis
Dorsal Pedal Pulse - Locate the first and second metatarsals. Place two fingers between the two bones and using gentle pressure, explore for the pulse
Tibialis Anterior Tendon - Locate the shaft of the tibia and slide off it laterally onto the tibialis anterior. With the ankle dorsiflexed, palpate the muscle distally as it becomes a thick, tendinous cord. Follow it to the medial side of the foot as it disappears at the medial cuneiform.
Base of the 5th Metatarsal - Locate the shaft of the fifth metatarsal. Follow the shaft proximally to where the base bulges laterally. Explore the superficial shape of the tuberosity and its surrounding landmarks as it projects from the side of the foot.
Medial Malleoli – Locate the boniest perturbance on the medial side of the ankle. Feel around the entire diameter of this protuberance.
Lateral Malleoli - Locate the boniest perturbance on the lateral side of the ankle. Feel around the entire diameter of this protuberance.
Anterior Tibiofibular Ligament – Locate the anterior aspect of the lateral malleolus and slide your thumb proximal roughly a half inch. Rub your thumb from that insertion diagonally toward the tibia, this is the line of pull for the Anterior Tibiofibular Ligament.
Anterior Talofibular Ligament - This ligament is not very distinguishable, but its position can be isolated by first locating the anterior aspect of the lateral malleolus. Slide your thumb toward the head of the talus, roughly an inch. The ligament passes just medial to the extensor digitorum brevis belly.
Calcaneofibular Ligament - Locate the distal end of the lateral malleolus and the lateral aspect of the calcaneus. This ligament runs at a slight oblique angle and passes posterior to the peroneal tubercle.
Posterior Talofibular Ligament - Set your finger on the posterior side of the lateral malleolus. Continue around the malleolus to the surface of the talus’ lateral tubercle. (If you have reached the calcaneal tendon, you have gone too far.) Between these landmarks will be the ligament.
Active & Passive Range of Motion (ROM) & Manual Muscle Testing (MMT):
- Inversion - Eversion