Chapter 5: Community Improvement Planning

Vocabulary List

(Merriam-Webster, 2023)


This week, you will learn about the most common planning models employed in developing programs for public health. These models will serve as the basis for a practical experience exercise in creating a community health program.

W05 Study: Eight Areas of Responsibility

Notice: Public health deals with health on a population level.

The National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC) identified the following competencies for Health Educators (NCHEC, n.d.).

A critical role in public health is the health educator.

Eight Areas of Responsibility

(National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc., n.d.)

Health Educator Ethics

Ethical behavior is essential when working with individuals, especially vulnerable populations. Given that most individuals or groups that health educators work with are vulnerable. The National Coalition of Health Educators adopted a standard code of ethics as follows:

2020 Code of Ethics for the Health Education Profession

(Coalition for National Health Education Organizations (CNHEO), 2020)

Article I: Core Ethical Expectations

Article II: Ethical Practice Expectations

The 2020 Code of Ethics provides guidelines for ethical conduct in health education. The Areas of Responsibilities, Competencies, and Sub-Competencies for Health Education help form the basis of your future courses' content in the public health degree at BYU-Idaho.

W05 Study: Community Improvement Models


Purpose: Learn about the different planning models used in the public health field. Gain a basic understanding of how organizations employ these planning models to make changes in their communities. 

Planning Models

History of Health Education

Earlier in the course, you learned about the history of public health. Planning models have been used throughout the history of public health and have evolved throughout the years. Planning models help you as a health professional to plan, implement, and evaluate programs in your profession. 

Many different planning models exist. Perhaps the most famous is the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model.


The PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model is the most authoritative for complex projects or when the general public is unaware of how to address the health problem. Marshall Kreuter and Larry Green developed it. Most planning models are based on the constructs in PRECEDE-PROCEED.

(Crosby & Noar, 2011a, 2011b)

A flow chart depicting the precede-procede model. See the appendix for a more in-depth description.

Access the appendix for a description of the image. 

Generic Planning Model

This course will use a simpler generic planning model, summarized below. Most public health programs should follow these or similar steps:

  1. Understand your problem

  2. Conduct a needs assessment

  3. Set goals

  4. Develop an intervention

  5. Implement the intervention

  6. Evaluate the results

Future Study

You will do a more in-depth study of the models introduced in this course in PUBH 390: Program Planning and Implementation.

Community Planning

Making a plan

Imagine you are planning a trip from your home to a distant city. There are many different methods of travel and many other routes to your destination. You could travel by plane, train, or by car. The plan you develop depends on your money, time, and options constraints. Planning in public health faces many of the same constraints.

What does planning look like in public health?

When addressing community health issues, public health planners must have a plan. Just having a good idea is not enough to successfully reduce health problems. One of the Eight Areas of Responsibility for health educators is planning health interventions. Like the example above, many different paths can be taken to reach the final destination; planning models will help find the best path.


SWOT analysis and the Market Process are two tools that can be used to develop a community health plan.

A common approach when looking at issues in your community is to use a strategic planning technique. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis method is often used in business planning.

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022)

Marketing Process

Using market research (input from the population) is an essential tool in determining the needs and wants of the target population. 

  1. Use market research to determine the needs and desires of the current and future clients in the target population.

  2. Develop a product that satisfies the needs and desires of the clients.

  3. Develop communication that informs and persuades the clients.

  4. Ensure the product is provided appropriately, at the right time and place, and the right price.

  5. Keep the clients satisfied and loyal after receiving the product.

Mental Practice Exercise

Consider the following issue:

As a community health worker for the local health department, you are aware that cancers of all kinds (childhood blood cancers, brain tumors, lung cancer, skin cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer) take a significant toll on your community. You have just been given a large sum of money to reduce cancer in your community over the next five years.

In your mind, consider the following questions when developing a plan:

APA Format


Headings and Headers are two different parts of APA formatting. Headings are discussed in more detail below and you are not required to have a header on Term Paper assignments.

There are five levels of heading in the APA style. You are only expected to understand level 1 and 2 headings in this course. Try to avoid having only one subsection heading within a section. Do not label headings with numbers or letters. Always double-space your headings. Do not switch to single spacing for headings of any level. Do not add blank lines above or below headings, even if the heading falls at the bottom of the page. 

Level 1 Headings: Level 1 is the highest or main heading level. Level 1 headings are centered, bold, and in title case. The text below this level of heading begins as a new paragraph. 

Level 2 Headings: Level 2 headings are left justified, bolded, and use title case. 

An example of an APA formatted essay. For a more in-depth description, see the appendix.

See the appendix for a description of the image.

The first paragraphs of any paper are always considered to be introductory. They do not need a heading. The title at the top of the page acts as the heading for your introduction. 


The concluding paragraph(s) appear at the end of the body section. The conclusion does not need a heading of “Conclusion” and includes information about your findings or conclusions.

When writing your conclusion, restate your topic and why it is important. Restate your thesis and give an overview of future research possibilities.

Rough Draft

When you have finished writing your conclusion, you will turn in your rough draft. A rough draft is the first version of your paper and will need a lot of editing and revising. It is important to remember that your rough draft is a long way from your final draft, but it is your complete paper ready for editing and revisions, which we will discuss in next week's reading. 


American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Headings. American Psychological Association.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, November 22). Do a SWOT Analysis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Coalition for National Health Education Organizations (CNHEO). (2020, February). Code of Ethics for the Health Education Profession. National Comission for Health Education Credentialing.

Crosby, R., & Noar, S. (2011a). PRECEDE-PROCEED. RHIhub.

Crosby, R., & Noar, S. M. (2011b). What is a planning model? An introduction to PRECEDE-PROCEED: An introduction to PRECEDE-PROCEED. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 71, S7–S15.

Merriam-Webster. (2023). Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster.

National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. (n.d.). Responsibilities and Competencies for Health Education Specialists. NCHEC.

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